Adult Education Project Topics

Utilization of Community Resources in the Implementation of Community Development Projects

Utilization of Community Resources in the Implementation of Community Development Projects in Nsukka Local Government Area of Enugu State

Utilization of Community Resources in the Implementation of Community Development Projects in Nsukka Local Government Area of Enugu State. Project material PDF document download start from the abstract to chapters 1 to 5

CHAPTER FIVE

DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

 This chapter presents the Discussion of the Findings, Educational Implications of the Study, Conclusion, Recommendations, Limitations of the Study and finally, Suggestions for Further Research.

Discussion of the Findings

 The findings of the study were discussed based on the research  questions:

The types of community development projects that are implemented utilizing community resources: The findings of the study revealed that the community development projects that are adequately implemented utilizing community resources are market stalls/lock-up shops, maternity and health centres, rural feeder roads, Church buildings, primary and secondary schools, civic centres, adult education centres, rural electrification and food processing machines. This has to be so as the various communities now implement various types of community development projects utilizing resources from the communities without waiting for government to provide them. Supporting the findings of the study, Ngwu (2004) noted that there are various types of community projects embarked upon by the community people. Hence, there are projects like rural water projects, hospital and maternity homes, schools, civic centres, post offices, rural electrification, rural feeder roads, market stalls, among others. Also, these community projects are initiated by private individuals or groups or members of a given community for the purpose of helping themselves and contributing towards the overall progress of the society. These projects vary and are initiated based on the priorities of the community through series of dialoguing  and other decision-making processes. The people also initiated the identified projects bearing in mind that such projects will help them meet their cultural, social, and economic needs and thereby help them contribute in the development of their local government area and the society at large.

The physical resources that are utilized in the implementation of community development projects: The findings of the study revealed that the major physical resources that are utilized in the implementation of community development projects are proceeds from hiring of their community chairs and canopies, sale  or utilization of community forest trees, sale or utilization of community sand, sale of communal lands, proceeds  from  community  income  generating projects e.g. garri processing mills and rice mills among others, sale or utilization of community gravels and stones, and sale or utilization of community water. On this, Eze (1999) stated that the community physical resources include forest resources, energy resources and water resources, art works from traditional technology materials (pottery) and materials from hand work. Oduaran and Akpovire (1994) noted that physical resources for community projects can be generated through the sale of communal lands, and proceeds from community income-generating projects such as  garri processing mills and  rice  mills among others. The findings of the study showed that the community physical resources are utilized to a moderate extent in the implementation of community development projects.

The first hypothesis (H01) was rejected showing that there was significant difference in the mean ratings of male and female community development association members on the extent to which physical resources are utilized  in  the implementation of community development projects in Nsukka Local Government Area of Enugu State. Out the eight items, seven showed that the t-Calculated values are greater than the t-Critical value of 1.96, while only one item has t-Calculated value that is less than the t-Critical value of 1.96. The null hypothesis was rejected. Therefore, the hypothesis showed that the male and female members of community development associations did not agree on the same parameter on the extent to which physical resources are utilized in the implementation of community development projects in Nsukka Local Government Area of Enugu State.

The human resources that are utilized in the implementation of community development projects: The findings of the study showed that the major human resources that are utilized in the implementation of community development projects are age grades in the funding, enforcing and in maintenance of law and order in the community, health workers for health advice during the implementation, professional/experts in the community for workshops organization for community members, voluntary youth leaders and experienced opinion leaders for launching and advice, skills from professionals, school teachers awareness creation, labour from family members, and professionals/experts in the community for equipment donation. This is in line with the assertion of Oduaran (1994) that human resources that are utilized in  the implementation of community development projects include donation of equipment by professionals, free skills by professionals, organization of workshop by professional, leaders in the community (both formal and informal leaders in the community). The leaders are family leaders, health workers,  school teachers, agriculturists, voluntary youth leaders, reputed farmers in the community, experienced opinion leaders as well as skilled people (or professionals) in the community.

The second hypothesis (H02) centred on finding out if there is any significant difference in the mean ratings of male and female community development association members on the extent to which physical resources are utilized in the implementation of community development projects in Nsukka Local Government Area. Six out of the 12 items indicated that the t-Calculated values are less than the t-Critical value of 1.96. This means that  for the  six items, there was no significant difference in the mean ratings of  male  and female community development association members on the extent to which physical resources are utilized in the implementation of  community  development projects in Nsukka Local Government Area. Also, six items had t-Calculated values greater than the t-Critical value of 1.96 proving that there was significant difference in the mean ratings of male and female community development association members on the extent to which physical resources are utilized in the implementation of community development projects in Nsukka Local Government Area. The significant difference may be attributed to the fact that male members of the community development associations are more conversant with the community resources and their availability. Also, women’s involvement in the implementation of community development projects  is  a new development in Nsukka Local Government Area of Enugu State. On the whole, the null hypothesis was rejected as there was significant difference in the mean ratings of male and female community  development  associations members on the extent to which human resources are utilized in the implementation of community development projects in Nsukka Local Government Area of Enugu State.

The institutional resources that are utilized in the implementation of community development projects: The findings of the study showed that the major community institutional resources that are utilized in the implementation of community development projects are civic halls, market stalls and lock-ups, parks, community development associations that initiate, plan and implement community development projects in the community,  voluntary  organizations that donate money and/or equipment for the implementation of community development projects, religious organizations that engage in building of schools and churches,  members of communities that obtain loan from the bank and use  it to engage themselves in some business, health centres and maternity, and factories. Lena (2013) affirmed that community institutional  resources  are public schools, parks, libraries and civic halls. Institutional resources contribute immensely in the implementation of community development projects. Mkpa (1990) stated that the examples of institutional resources are schools, health centres, sports clubs, and community development associations, among others. Others are markets, factories, banks, market tolls, and payment of  land  use lease. According to Madu (2004), community institutional resources include kinship, age grades, voluntary organizations, town unions and religious women associations. These institutions contribute in the implementation of community development projects in the sense that some in-laws single-handedly carry out some projects in communities like building of hospitals, schools, bore-holes, market stalls, maternity homes, electricity installation and other meaningful developmental projects. In case of age grade in communities, they contribute a lot in enforcing community development projects. They help in maintaining law and order in the community. Communities also get proceeds from hiring of their community chairs and canopies. Donations from children abroad are of great importance to community development projects. Religious  institutions, according to Mkpa are also sources through which community obtain resources for development projects. Examples include social services by churches, provision of welfare services, donations from church organizations. Religious organizations help in the implementing community development projects.

The third hypothesis (H03) was to find out if there was any significant difference in the mean ratings of male and female members of the community development associations on the extent to which institutional resources are utilized in the implementation of community development projects in Nsukka Local Government Area of Enugu State. The t-test of difference in the mean ratings of the male members of community development associations and their female counterparts indicated that there was significant difference in their mean ratings on the extent of utilization of institutional resources in the implementation of community development projects in Nsukka Local Government Area. Even though five of the items had t-Calculated values that were less than the t-Critical value of 1.96, the null hypothesis was rejected as there was significant difference in the mean ratings of male and  female  members of the community development associations on the extent to which institutional resources are utilized in the implementation of community development projects in Nsukka Local Government Area of Enugu State. It further showed that both male and female members of the community development associations in Nsukka Local Government Area did not agree on the utilization of the various institutional resources in the implementation of community development projects in the local government area.

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The factors that militate against the effective utilization of community resources in the implementation of community development projects: The findings of the study further showed that the major factors that militate against the effective utilization of community resources in the implementation of community development projects are that majority of the community members are not involved in the planning and implementation of community development projects, low literacy level among the rural dwellers, intra-communal politics, insufficient fund, fund misappropriation and embezzlement, shortage of skilled manpower in the community, and marginalization and discrimination of women. Other factors are poor leadership, frequent interference of the government in the effective utilization of community resources for proper planning and implementation of community development projects and on-going community development projects not addressing the felt-needs of the community.

In support of the findings, Gboku and Lekoko (2006) noted that one of the factors affecting the utilization of community resources for community development project implementation is poor participation by the people resulting from the fact that majority of the community members are not involved in the planning and implementation of community development projects. The resultant effect is that community resources utilization process is faced with lack of co-operation by the members of the community. On inadequate funding, Mbagwu (2004) observed that funding, decision-making as well as the choice of project sites constitute major problems facing community development projects in many communities. Most times, projects are started without the needed funds, with the belief that as the execution goes on more funds would be generated. Unfortunately, this is not usually the case. Therefore, the best thing to do is to have the complete project funds available before the commencement of execution in order to avert the incidence of abandoned projects. Also, there should be proper budgeting in order to ensure adequate funds for project budgeting in order to ensure adequate funds for selection and utilization of any community resource.

The findings of the study also showed that the utilization of community resources for community development projects is also faced with the problem of personnel skilled and unskilled labour, non availability of expertise as well as mismanagement of community resources by some people. According to Asuka (2004), the dearth of skilled, qualified and competent manpower in the various communities, especially on executive capacity affects projects execution and most times ends in abandoned projects. Executive capacity involves those professional and experts such as agronomists, medical consultants, engineers, architects, accountants, and policy analysts, among others who are needed for project execution. These experts and other skilled manpower are in short supply in most communities, and thereby limiting the possibility of project execution and ultimately end up in abandoned project.

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Another factor that has led to the ineffective utilization of community resources is the issue of corruption. This is usually perpetrated by politicians, contractors and local communities through outright embezzlement of project funds or misappropriation of funds or through over invoicing of  project materials and equipment. In all the cases, the consequence is abandoned projects occasioned mainly by the depletion of projects funds caused by corruptive tendencies of actors and stakeholders.

Projects’ planners and organizers are also faced with the problem of decision-making and that of the mobilization of people for effective utilization of community resources for community development project implementation (Okafor, 2004). Also identified include inadequate facilities, such as transport, accommodation, water, and power supply. Nneka (1994) noted that inadequate infrastructural facilities are encountered as major problems by various communities in their development efforts. The findings of the study disclosed that these factors were rated high and therefore, they affect immensely the adequate utilization of the community resources in the implementation of community development projects.

The final null hypothesis (H04) tested the significant difference in the mean ratings of male and female community development association members on the factors that militate against the effective utilization of community resources in the implementation of community development projects in Nsukka Local Government Area of Enugu State. The findings of the study revealed that out of the 10 items, two had t-Calculated values that were less than the t-Critical value of 1.96. On these two items, the null hypothesis was upheld. It implies that there was no significant difference in the mean ratings of male and female community development association members on the factors that  militate  against the effective utilization of community resources in the implementation   of community development projects in Nsukka Local Government Area. On the other hand, eight of the items had t-Calculated values that were greater than the t-Critical value of 1.96 showing that the null hypothesis was rejected. In all, the null hypothesis was rejected. This implies that there is significant difference in the mean ratings of male and female community development association members on the factors that militate against the effective utilization of community resources in the implementation of  community  development projects in Nsukka Local Government Area of Enugu State.

Educational Implications of the Study

 The findings of the study have several implications for an effective implementation of community development projects. This will be effectively implemented when the community members effectively utilize the various community resources in the implementation of community  development projects. The community resources that can be effectively utilized in the implementation of community development projects are physical, human and institutional resources.

On the utilization of physical resources, the study revealed that proceeds from hiring of their community chairs and canopies, sale or utilization of community forest trees, community sand, lands, gravels and stones, and water, and proceeds from community income-generating projects are utilized to a moderate extent. The implication is that the  resulting education empowerment  of the people can stimulate the existing community leadership and also, encourage new leaders to seek for resources that are within their communities. It will eventually spark further development efforts towards identifying various community development projects that can be implemented utilizing community resources. The findings will enable governmental agencies to properly disseminate information and offer technical and managerial assistance to the members of the community development associations on matters pertaining to adequate utilization of community physical resources in the implementation of community development projects.

On the utilization of community human resources in the implementation  of community development projects, the study showed that community development projects are not adequately implemented through the involvement of agriculturists and reputed farmers in the community, children living abroad (outside the community) and in-laws. This implies that the state and local governments should come to the assistance of the various communities by conscientizing them on the need to involve everybody in the implementation of community development projects. They should be made to realize that there  exist experts in the community that can be effectively utilized in the implementation of community development projects.

The study further revealed that the extent to which the community institutional resources are utilized in the implementation of community development projects is not encouraging. This is made manifest on the low extent to which sports clubs, factories, health centres and maternity homes, loan from the banks and religious organizations are utilized in the implementation of community development projects in Nsukka Local Government Area of Enugu State. On this, it implies that Enugu State Government Agencies should  assist the communities in the diversification of community development projects so as to have varied sources of revenue for future developmental projects.

Finally, the study has implication for the policy developers on the high extent to which various factors militate against the effective utilization of community resources in the implementation of community  development projects. Therefore, there is need for the experts in policy development to formulate policies in community development programmes that will enable community members, especially the community development association members to utilize the various physical, human and institutional resources in the implementation of community development projects. Through this, the community members will rise up to the challenges of investigating at the grassroots level, the impact of political, economic, educational, and socio- cultural development policy planning and implementation on the various community development programmes in Nsukka Local Government Area in particular and Enugu State in general.

Conclusion

 This study assessed the extent to which community resources are utilized in the implementation of community development projects in Nsukka Local Government Area of Enugu State. The study was carried out on 302 members of community development associations from 12 registered community development associations in the local government area. It was done with the aim of improving the extent of utilizing community resources in the development of community projects thereby achieving sustainable community development in the country. However, the achievement of the sustainable community development is dependent upon the effective utilization of community physical, human and institutional resources in the implementation of community development projects.

To guide the study, five research questions were formulated while four hypotheses were tested at .05 level of significance. The design of the study was descriptive survey research method. The data were collected through the use of structured questionnaire. The collected data were analyzed by computing and comparing the mean scores, and by the use of Student t-test statistics.

From the findings and the discussion of the study, it was discovered that the respondents accepted that the physical, human and institutional resources were utilized moderately in the implementation of community development projects. Also, all the four null hypotheses were rejected showing that the male and female respondents in the community development associations in Nsukka Local Government Area of Enugu State did not agree on equal level on the extent of utilization of community resources in the implementation of community development projects.

Recommendations

 Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations were proffered:

Both state and local governments should come to the assistance of the various communities by conscientizing them on the need to  involve everybody in the implementation of community development projects. They should ensure total community involvement in community development. To ensure this, the ministry of rural development should endeavour to delegate powers to local leaders at all levels of the community who should account for the  exercise of that power.

Various governmental agencies should disseminate information and offer technical and managerial assistance to the members of the community development associations in the state on matters pertaining to adequate utilization of community resources in the implementation of community development projects. They should ensure the proper development of  appropriate skills (human capital development) as well as implementation capacity to sustain new technologies and improvement of social welfare in the various communities.

Enugu State Government should build-in core leadership programme in the community development programmes through education empowerment. The resulting education empowerment of the people can stimulate the existing community leadership and also, encourage new leaders to  seek  for resources that are within their communities. It will eventually spark further development efforts towards identifying various community development projects that can be implemented utilizing community resources.

Enugu State Government should assist the communities in the diversification of community development projects so as to have varied sources of revenue for future developmental projects. This can be effectively achieved through encouraging the various communities to utilize the cultural values and practices of the people. Indigenous institutions such as age grades, youth organizations, clubs and town unions should be used in reaching the community members and in mobilizing latent energies in the various communities.

The state and local government agencies involve in policy development should formulate policies in community development programmes that will enable communities to utilize the various physical, human and institutional resources in the implementation of community development projects. Through this, the community members will rise up to the challenges of investigating at  the grassroots level, the impact of political, economic, educational, and socio- cultural development policy implementation on the various community development projects.

Enugu State Ministry of Rural Development in conjunction with the Enugu State Community and Social Development Project Initiative (CSDPI) should build incentives and motivation into community development system. This can be in form of citations, honourable mentions, honorary titles  and  prizes, competition between communities, organizing development day to select the best cleanest or most performed community.

Limitations of the Study

 The study accomplished the aim for which it set out. However, the limitation encountered in the course of carrying out the study is that though the researcher trained research assistants for the study, such extraneous variables as reactions of the members of the community development associations who are the respondents might distort the actual information needed.

Suggestions for Further Research

 The findings of the study made the researcher to suggest that further research be carried out in the following areas:

  1. Similar study should be conducted in other local government areas of Enugu
  2. Assessment of the extent of mobilization of women for effective utilization of community resources in the implementation of community development projects in Enugu State.
  3. Assessment of the extent to which community mobilization strategies have been utilized in the execution of community development projects in Enugu
  4. Assessment of the problems and prospects of effective community resources utilization in the implementation of community development projects in Enugu State.

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Content Structure of Utilization of Community Resources in the Implementation of Community Development Projects

  • The abstract contains the research problem, the objectives, methodology, results, and recommendations
  • Chapter one of this thesis or project materials contains the background to the study, the research problem, the research questions, research objectives, research hypotheses, significance of the study, the scope of the study, organization of the study, and the operational definition of terms.
  • Chapter two contains relevant literature on the issue under investigation. The chapter is divided into five parts which are the conceptual review, theoretical review, empirical review, conceptual framework, and gaps in research
  • Chapter three contains the research design, study area, population, sample size and sampling technique, validity, reliability, source of data, operationalization of variables, research models, and data analysis method
  • Chapter four contains the data analysis and the discussion of the findings
  • Chapter five contains the summary of findings, conclusions, recommendations, contributions to knowledge, and recommendations for further studies.
  • References: The references are in APA
  • Questionnaire