A Survey of Entrepreneurship Education in Three Colleges of Education in Nigeria
DISCUSSION OF RESULT, IMPLICATION, RECOMMENDATIONS, CONCLUSION
In this chapter, the discussion of major findings of the study, the education implications, recommendations, suggestions for further study and summary of the study are presented.
Discussion of the Findings
The weaknesses of Entrepreneurship Education In Three Colleges Of Education in North Central State of Nigeria
Research question 2 sought to find out the weaknesses of entrepreneurship education In Three Colleges Of Education in North Central State of Nigeria. The analysis of data generated revealed equipped entrepreneurial centres are not enough, lack of exposure to practical, lack of information on existing opportunities, lack of capital to finance acquired skills, lack of involvement of staff in the practical aspect of EED programme, lack of workshops for the teaching of EED practical programme, lack of constant power supply, lack of interest from students, and most of the works on entrepreneurships education in the library are outdated. The study confirms that there is significant difference between the mean responses of lecturers and coordinators on the weaknesses to entrepreneurship education challenges in Colleges Of Education. In other words, lecturers and coordinators have similar views on the weaknesses to entrepreneurship education challenges in Colleges Of Education.
The present finding supports earlier findings of scholars like Puyate (2008), Ugwoke, Basake, Daria and Chukwuma (2013) and Ofoha (2011), which for instance, revealed a dearth of professional and qualified teachers for the teaching of vocational/technical subjects; inadequate infrastructure and equipment in schools; insufficient instructional materials and books in schools; and that schools are generally poorly financed. While Ugwoke et al (2013) revealed that, there were inadequate provision of funds, facilities and personal; Ofoha (2011) unveil the fact that, out of the sampled students, some have learnt significant self-employable entrepreneurial skills in 6 out of 36 vocational areas. Also, their entrepreneurial capability was found low, as there were no significant production of marketable goods and services to show for their practical knowledge.
The opportunities of Entrepreneurship Education In Three Colleges Of Education in North Central State of Nigeria
The research question 3 sought to determine the opportunities of entrepreneurship education In Three Colleges Of Education in North Central State of Nigeria. The study found that the courses involve hands-on learning-by-doing activities; the courses encourage creative thinking; the courses involve group projects and/or team-building exercises, the courses involve community service activities; it make them able to tailor their courses to meet the class’s needs; students are made to be aware of entrepreneurship as a career option, firms and industries in the zone are willing to accept students for industrial training primarily on small business start-ups; the students are taught leadership skills; students run a school store or other real business through the courses; students are taught the pitfalls of and obstacles to becoming an entrepreneur as well as the opportunities; students from all backgrounds are enrolled into EED programme; and increasing government budgeting allocation for EED programme and Alumina does contribute facilities for teaching of EED programme amongst others. The study also confirmed that there is no significant difference between the mean responses of lecturers and coordinators on the opportunities of entrepreneurship education in Colleges Of Education.
The present finding supports the assertions of European Commission (2006) who believes that what entrepreneurs have in common is not personality traits but a commitment to innovation. For innovation to occur the entrepreneur must have not only talent, ingenuity and knowledge but he must also be hard working, focused and purposeful. According to Aruwa (2004), it is the ability of some people to accept risk and combine factors of production in order to produce goods and services. It can also be seen as the willingness and ability of an individual to seek out investment opportunities in an environment, and be able to establish and run an enterprise successfully based on the identified opportunities. The concept of entrepreneurship is however associated with a number of activities as it does not occur in a vacuum. For it to occur it demands the presence of an entrepreneur and an enabling environment.
The strengths of entrepreneurship education In Three Colleges Of Education in North Central State of Nigeria
The finding of the study based on the research question 4 which sought to find out the strengths of EED showed that funds are made available for in-service training of EED staff; Nigeria has the market for any business to operate, Colleges Of Education in the North central states run interrupted academic calendar; and there exist relative peace among the host communities. There are also qualified manpower to teach EED courses; a high enrolment of student for the EED programs; Colleges Of Education libraries have up-to-date reading materials for users of EED; and Colleges Of Education run alternative power supply for effective EED programme delivery; even though firms and industries within the states are not readily available to accept students of EED programme for industrial attachments. Both lecturers and coordinators had similar views on the strengths of entrepreneurship education challenges in Colleges Of Education. In other words, there is no significant difference between the mean responses of lecturers and coordinators on the strengths of entrepreneurship education in Colleges Of Education. These findings indicate that there are a lot of areas of strength that Colleges Of Education can tap to overcome the threats and weaknesses facing entrepreneurship education in North central states of Nigeria.
Firms and industries within the states not being readily available to accept students of EED programme for industrial attachments, is in line with public outcry that North Central states are less industrialized, that is why many students on industrial attachment have to go to other geopolitical zones for attachment. This incidence has left the students with little or no interest in studying entrepreneurship education. However, the present findings is in line with that of Agu and Ikeme (2013) who found out that Nigerian Colleges Of Education have what it takes to implements entrepreneurship education programme, as there are certain needs that have been met. Therefore, such areas of strength like adequate funding by the government for procurement of instructional materials and the readiness of students to undergo the study becomes vital. In the same vein, Rasmussen and Sørheim (2006) encouraged students to generate experience in entrepreneurship in order to develop their skills and abilities in spite the low patronage from local firms.
From the findings obtained from the study, the following conclusions were made:
The entrepreneurship education programme in operation is a worldwide programme which is providing a solid foundation for lifelong learning, self-awareness, and citizenship and life skills. In order to ensure the effective achievement by substring of the entrepreneurship education programme in Nigeria Colleges Of Education, University authorities would need to adopt strategic management techniques, which will enable them build on their strength which includes; the making funds available and encouraging high enrolment of students for the programme.
The entrepreneurship education programme holds viable prospect and opportunities which includes amongst others, that the course involve hand-on learningby-doing activities; the courses encourage creative thinking; and students from all backgrounds are enrolled into EED programme and that Colleges Of Education management should work on overcoming the threats and weaknesses while vigilant should be kept on Staff attendance to workshops and seminars; cost of university education; lecturers workload and budgeting allocation to Colleges Of Education ,as well as exposure to practical; funding; acquired skills; and power supply.
Educational Implications of the Findings
From the findings of this study one can deduce some far-reaching educational implications for Colleges Of Education authorities, government, policy makers and Nigeria University Commission (NUC), lecturers and students. The study provides empirical evidence on the strength of entrepreneurship education In Three Colleges Of Education which includes: provision of funds for the procurement of instructional materials; availability of fund for in-service training; the existence of relative peace among the host communities and Colleges Of Education and high enrolment of students for EED programme. These findings have implications for firms and industries within the states to make themselves readily available to accept students of EED programme for industrial attachments.
The finding on opportunities of entrepreneurship education In Three Colleges Of Education includes that, the course involves hand-on learning-by-doing activities; the courses encourage creative thinking; and students from all backgrounds are enrolled into EED programme. The implications are that if really the objectives of the programme are to be actualized, sufficient resources have to be deployed. The finding also shows to a large extent that Colleges Of Education face some threats to entrepreneurship education programmes. This implies that, there is the need for the government to make it possible for staff to attend workshops and seminars; decrease the cost of university education; recruit more lecturers to avoid excess workload and to increase budgeting allocation to Colleges Of Education to enhance their performance.
Finally, the findings revealed that there are weaknesses of entrepreneurship education challenges facing Colleges Of Education. Here, the implication is that, there is the need for the university authorities and government to expose students to practical works; provide fund to finance acquired skills; and provide opportunities for constant power supply.
The following recommendations have been proffered based on the findings and implications of the study:
- Colleges Of Education authorities should make provision for lecturers to go for workshops or seminars so as to be exposed to current trends in EED programme.
- The Federal government of Nigeria should maintain a policy aimed at provide adequate funding for entrepreneurship education in Colleges Of Education
- A supervisory team are to be set to take the responsibility of maintaining a judicious expenditure of such funds. In light of this, government should set up a blueprint on punishment to offenders on misappropriation of entrepreneurship education fund.
- University authorities should equipped entrepreneurial centres to expose lecturers and students to practical aspects of EED.
- Firms and industries should be more willing to accept students for industrial training as this will strengthen the students’ interest in entrepreneurship education programme.
- Additional qualified lecturers should be employed In Three Colleges Of Education for the EED programme so as to reduce the workload of the lecturers.
- There should be intensified efforts in the effective supervision, monitoring and evaluation of the EED programme across Colleges Of Education to ensure high performance and productivity.