Electrical Engineering Project Topics

A Study of GSM Propagation on Unilorin Campus Using Walfisch-ikegami Model

A Study of GSM Propagation on Unilorin Campus Using Walfisch-ikegami Model


Land terrain and environmental contributors’ data are used extensively to predict propagation conditions, to optimally select locations for installing cellular base stations. There have been several models developed to predict the pattern of the losses attributed to propagated signals between two antennas (one at the cellular base station and the other at the mobile phone receiver). This project focuses on the use of the Walfisch-Ikegami model in predicting path loss of GSM signals within the University of Ilorin campus. This is done by comparing some measured data with calculated values.

To determine the location where measurements were taken, the Google earth application was used in conjunction with a GPS device. The measurement of the signals getting to the mobile devices was determined through a process of sending Attention commands (AT commands) through a personal computer’s serial port to mobile devices over a period of time as mentionedearlier.The phones are such that they are compatible with the AT commands instruction set (reason being that not all phones can respond to these commands). An algorithm was developed for the calculation to be done using the theoretical Walfisch-Ikegami model.The measured values were compared with the results of the predictions to determine the suitability of the model for the selected areas within the University of Ilorin campus.


Summary and Conclusion

In the course of this project, several areas of knowledge on mobile communications were investiagted trying to take a look at the difficulties that arise in mobile communications with respect to the pathlosses inherent between transceiver base station and end users’ mobile devices. The method iterated by Akanni, J (2014) for the measurement of signal strength was confirmed. The losses are due to the propagation characteristics of radio signals. Important to note is that, the Walfisch-Ikegami model used for studies here is only representative of many others that have been developed, modified and used in the past.

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This model however too, can still be further modidified in the case of studies in some other parts of the world with varied geographic features.One thing to note here, is that the outcome of the studies was able to determine that the Walfisch-Ikegami model will not beviable tool for path-loss modelling for the kind of settlement involved in this studies.

 Challenges on Studies

  1. Difficulty in gathering information regarding base stations as they are not readily available for individuals except on very classified grounds
  2. A few approximations were made as a result of unavailability of information and parameters used for the predictions.
  3. Immobility was a major setback because there was a need to move from one loaction to another.


  1. Project works such as here done, should be adequately supported by concerned bodies and agencies even to the level of providing information.
  2. Starting studies enough in order to avail ample time to reach a laudable conclusion or make tangible inferences.
  3. Proper RF planning should be done before embarkung on such project works relating to path loss models for the deployment of GSM technology.
  4. Mobility and financial capacity of researcher should also be in place as the tasks regarding RF tests are always very tedious and time demanding.
  5. As the number of mobile communications enthusiasts in the world is on the increasing end, it is advised that more researches should be done in order to study the underlying factors to be considered and parameters to be put in place in order that customer satisfaction is met.

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