Public Health Project Topics

Investigation of the Covid-19 Safety Compliance Level of Transport Companies in Abuja (a Case Study of Akwa Ibom Transport Company, Jabi)





The global impact of corona virus has been well documented. This outbreak was deemed a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) on 11th March 2020. As at December 2020, there have been cases confirmed in over 203 countries, areas or territories, according to the World Health Organization (WHO, 2020).

The outbreak of this virus in Nigeria brought about several restrictions on all sectors of operations in Nigeria as it was described to be communicable and deadly by world health organization.

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), coronaviruses are a family of viruses that cause illnesses ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). These viruses were originally transmitted from animals to people. SARS, for instance, it was transmitted from civet cats to humans while MERS moved to humans from a type of camel. Several known coronaviruses are circulating in animals that have not yet infected humans. Countries around the world are scrambling to halt the spread of the coronavirus pandemic.

On 27 February, Nigeria confirmed its first case in Lagos State, an Italian citizen who works in Nigeria had returned on 25 February from Milan, Italy through the Murtala Muhammed International Airport, fell ill on 26 February and was transferred to Lagos State Biosecurity Facilities for isolation and testing. In order to contain the spread of the virus in Nigeria, the federal Government placed restrictions on academic institutions, businesses, social gatherings, religious organizations, human movements, transportation companies and all sectors of transportation etc. The restrictions placed on road transportation are meant to assist the sector to sustain its activities as it is a very vital part of the countries economy.


The restrictions include; only carrying a maximum of 50% passenger capacity to avoid close human contact; having spare buses on standby to handle peak demand (so as to ensure maximum loadings of 50%); increasing the cleaning of commonly touched surfaces in vehicles; ensuring staff maintain social distancing in common areas (i.e. meal rooms) and ensuring every staff puts on face mask.

However, due to the large population of transportation companies and administrative inefficiencies of Government agencies, there have not been any clear view on rate of compliance and adherence to those covid-19 restriction established for the transportation sector. Thence is the focus of this study; to examine and investigate the rate of safety compliance by transport companies over the covid-19 restrictions.


The spread of covid-19 has the ability to wipe-off a nation. A concrete restriction or prevention measures is the major way through which the spread can be controlled.

From the very first outbreak of this virus in Nigeria, the Government necessitated prevention majors in every sectors of the economy including the transportation sectors. The various safety measures put in place to avoid the wide spread of this pandemic includes; constant washing of hands, wearing of face mask, maintenance of social distancing, use of hand sanitizers, etc. However the transport sector has experienced more restrictions which practically affected its operations. This restriction prevented them from carrying the usual number of passengers in their vehicles. It must be noted that law avoidance is almost the case of the day in Nigeria and Government orders are not strictly adhered to as there is no constant and strict supervision which is as a result of ineffectiveness and inefficiency of Government agencies. Thus this study is in quest to discover the extent to which transport companies comply with the covid 19 safety orders, prevention or restrictions.

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The basic or most essential grail of this study is to investigate the extent to which transport companies comply to Covid 19 safety rules or restrictions. Other specific aims are;

  1. To investigate if transport companies comply to Covid 19 safety restrictions.
  2. To examine the extent to which transport companies ensure adherence to Government orders against the spread of Covid-19.
  3. To examine the extent to which Government enforcement agencies carry out their supervisory roles in ensuring complete compliance to Covid-19 prevention measures by transport companies.
  4. To investigate if there is a constant use of face mask and hand sanitizers in transports companies in Abuja.


  1. Does transport companies comply to Covid 19 restrictions?
  2. To what extent does transport companies comply to Covid 19 rules and restrictions?
  3. To what extent does transport companies ensure adherence to Government orders against the spread of Covid 19?
  4. To what extent does Government enforcement agencies carry out their supervisory roles in ensuring complete compliance to Covid 19 prevention measures by transport companies?
  5. Is there constant use of face mask and hand sanitizers in transports companies in Abuja?


This study will be of unspeakable importance to the Federal and state Government as it will expose the situation of compliance by transport companies, and the gaps the enforcement agencies creates which stipulate irregular adherence to covid-19 rules and restrictions. And the recommendations will make a great impact on how to tighten the restrictions. This study will serve as a source of information or as an academic material to the general public, students and researchers.


The study will cover only the federal capital territory, Abuja and the state of Safety compliance to covid-19 rules by transport companies in Abuja using Akwa Ibom Transport Company, Jabi as case study.


Covid-19: This is also known as coronavirus and it is a communicable respiratory disease caused by a new strain of coronavirus that causes illness in humans.

Compliance: the act of obeying and observing that which is lawful and legal.

Transportation Company: A transportation company is a business that transports freight from one location to another which is a key in the value chain in manufacturing.

Government: The body of persons that constitutes the governing authority of a political unit or organization: such as. a : the officials comprising the governing body of a political unit and constituting the organization as an active agency.



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