In Vitro Studies in to the Efficacy of Citrus Peels (Orange, Lemon and Grape) Control of the Root-knot Nematodes
Content Structure of In Vitro Studies in to the Efficacy of Citrus Peels (Orange, Lemon and Grape) Control of the Root-knot Nematodes
- The abstract contains the research problem, the objectives, methodology, results, and recommendations
- Chapter one of this thesis or project materials contains the background to the study, the research problem, the research questions, research objectives, research hypotheses, significance of the study, the scope of the study, organization of the study, and the operational definition of terms.
- Chapter two contains relevant literature on the issue under investigation. The chapter is divided into five parts which are the conceptual review, theoretical review, empirical review, conceptual framework, and gaps in research
- Chapter three contains the research design, study area, population, sample size and sampling technique, validity, reliability, source of data, operationalization of variables, research models, and data analysis method
- Chapter four contains the data analysis and the discussion of the findings
- Chapter five contains the summary of findings, conclusions, recommendations, contributions to knowledge, and recommendations for further studies.
- References: The references are in APA
Abstract of In Vitro Studies in to the Efficacy of Citrus Peels (Orange, Lemon and Grape) Control of the Root-knot Nematodes
The extracts of fresh peels of lemon, orange, and grapefruit showed significant nematostatic effect against M. incognita second stage juveniles after 48 h treatment. The nemticidal activity was very low in all the extracts of fresh peels but was greatly enhanced in the extracts of stored pulpified peels with 90.8 %, 93.5 %, and 85.0 % mortality of nematodes for lemon, orange, and grapefruit,
respectively. The data indicated the possibility of essential oils from the citrus peels might have released in the extracts during storage of the pulpified peels. The egg hatch inhibition of the extracts from stored pulpified peels was 85.7 %, 91.0 %, and 78.3 % for lemon, orange, and grapefruit, respectively. The reversible tests revealed that the effect of extracts on the hatch of eggs was not permanent. The hatching partially resumed after the removal of the extracts but was still significantly lower than the control. The infection of M. incognita second-stage juveniles on mung bean roots was significantly inhibited by the extracts of the refrigerator-stored pulpified peels of lemon, orange, and grapefruit. The findings provide an alternative to chemical nematicides for organic farming and help the disposal of citrus juice processing waste as well as the fallen fruits in the orchards in the typhoon season.