BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Oral expression of ideas, emotions, and feelings is known as speaking. It is one of the most significant abilities in the study of English. Other abilities, like as listening, reading, and writing, must, however, be taught all at once (Oradee Munir, 2012). This is comprehensible since interaction involves the application of several skills, such as listening to the speaker, responding to what the speaker said, and so on. Even yet, fluency in speaking is an important component to which students and instructors should pay close attention. English speaking proficiency is very important for students and instructors at the English Language Department, Faculty of Education and Teacher Training. This is because, first and foremost, they must speak English orally every day as a role model for their pupils. They must be able to communicate well in English in order to engage with pupils during teaching and learning. Second, they must plan classroom activities that will help them improve their oral English fluency. However, it is common knowledge that not all English students can speak well. This might be due to a variety of issues, including a lack of English proficiency, particularly in speaking. As a result, presenters must carefully plan what they will say and how they will say it in order for listeners to get the message (McMillan Toybet, 1987). Speakers must ponder what they will say before expressing their opinions. Another issue is that learners in certain countries where English is not the first or second language are not exposed to English use on a regular basis (Muamaroh M.E, 2013). As a result, they are unable to employ it instinctively in their speech. Furthermore, as various studies have shown, kids are exposed to a variety of influences that impact their capacity to communicate. Tuan and Mai (2015) discovered that poor student performance in speaking was influenced by a variety of variables, including a lack of student motivation, the use of mother language in the learning process, a lack of vocabulary, and engagement in instructional activities. According to Hamad Hanukali (2013), several unfavorable variables have an impact on pupils’ speaking abilities. They agreed that the use of the mother tongue in the classroom affects students’ proficiency, that students are afraid to use English in public, that students use English less in discussion activities, that the curriculum contains fewer speaking exercises, that teachers do not provide support and time for students, and that the speaking section of the curriculum is less than the listening section. A research was conducted to determine what characteristics had a favorable impact on students’ English speaking fluency. Hidayat and Herawati (2012) performed the study, and the findings suggest that three elements impact students’ speaking fluency: a fun learning process, high self-motivation, and effective peer support. The purpose of this research was to fill in the gaps by looking at the variables that influence public secondary school students’ fluency in spoken English.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
In a large nation like Nigeria, where the bulk of the population lives in rural regions, this is especially important. Listening, speaking, reading, and writing are all challenging for students to learn in English. The setting that does not encourage students to speak English well is one of the key reasons of their difficulty. The majority of secondary pupils learn English as a second language, with their native tongue serving as their primary language. Many little fragile language groups in our nation are on the verge of extinction as a result of more dominant cultures and languages (Muamaroh M.E, 2013). On the contrary, because of the advancement and progress in development works in various fields, the public has a general belief that learning English is important because of the effects of globalization and liberalization. Hence the need to look into factors affecting public secondary school students fluency in spoken english.
OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The general objective of the study is to examine the factors affecting public secondary school students fluency in spoken english. Specifically, the study will be guided under the following:
i. To examine the extent to which family environment affect secondary student fluency in english language.
ii. To find out if lack of qualified teacher contributes to lack of secondary school students fluency in english language.
iii. To evaluate if school type influences secondary school students fluency in english language.
iv. To recommend ways fluency in english language can be improved among secondary school students.
The following questions have been prepared for the study:
i. To what extent does family environment affect secondary student fluency in english language?
ii. Does lack of qualified teacher contributes to lack of secondary school students fluency in english language?
iii. Does school type influences secondary school students fluency in english language?
iv. How can fluency in english language can be improved among secondary school students?
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study will be significant to the ministry of education as it will be exposed to the deficit in fluency of spoken english among public secondary school students. Hence they will employ qualified teachers to take english language and also introduce other curricular activities to improve students fluency in english language.
The study will be significant to the academic community as it will contribute to the existing literature.
SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study will examine the extent to which family environment affect secondary student fluency in english language. The study will also find out if lack of qualified teacher contributes to lack of secondary school students fluency in english language. The study will further evaluate if school type influences secondary school students fluency in english language. Lastly, the study will recommend ways fluency in english language can be improved among secondary school students. Hence the study will be delimited to public secondary schools in Dala local government area. Kano state.
LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
Like in every human endeavour, the researchers encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire, and interview), which is why the researcher resorted to a moderate choice of sample size. More so, the researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
Fluency: the quality or condition of being fluent.
English language: a system for the expression of thoughts, feelings, etc, by the use of spoken sounds or conventional symbols