BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Learning is the systematic development of information and skills via interaction between teachers and students. It occurs through the interplay of instructor, student, approach, and materials. These items contain portions known as teaching resources (Akerele, Aguele & Anyanwu, 2012). It has been demonstrated that teachers have a significant impact on the academic accomplishment of their students. If the teacher is ineffective, the students under his or her tutelage will make inadequate academic progress. This is irrelevant of the academic attainment potential similarities or differences between the students. Some of the shortcomings highlighted thus far include ineffective teaching methods, a lack of competent instructors, inadequate infrastructure and laboratory equipment, teacher-centered training, and the absence of instructional materials and their use (Yaki, 2011, Olorukoba, 2007).
Traditional (or conventional) teaching methods are teacher-centered and involve the use of lectures and discussions, while the problem-solving element is presented and/or discussed with the instructor; the syllabus, the teaching materials, and the student evaluations are determined by the tutor and communicated to the students through a series of lectures (Cottel & Millis, 1993). The conventional method of teaching, which is as old as formal education itself, involves the transmission of knowledge from the instructor to the learner. The inability of students to remember what they have learned is a consequence of a teacher’s ineffective method of instruction or approach to teaching. Frequently, this issue is produced by excessively theoretical instructor discourse while students are passive listeners. Facts and concepts are memorized and regurgitated by students. Using electronic media;(video recordings, audio recordings, multimedia presentations, slide presentations, CD-ROM and online content) process and other interactive media software facilities in which a student interacts with and is guided by visual equipment for the purpose of achieving certain instructional goals, these issues can be addressed (Onasanya, 2002).
The use of media may convert classroom learning into a sequence of rich, memorable experiences, hence reducing boredom and forgetfulness in the classroom. In educational institutions, the use of microcomputers in the teaching and learning process has grown prevalent in recent years (Onasanya, 2002). According to Abimbade (2000), the use of computers (1) increases the amount of time students devote to learning, (2) accelerates the availability of data and information, (3) provides immediate feedback, (4) assists teachers with fewer qualifications, and (5) increases teachers’ efficiency and effectiveness. Adeniyi (2002) found that students who were taught civics with visual aids performed better intellectually than those who were not.
Integration is the use of technology to enrich, restate, present, and measure how well students comprehend the syllabus or the program. Technology is now ubiquitous in classrooms, offices, and among individuals since it facilitates learning and aids in the development of knowledge (Edutopia, 2005). Video as a kind of media in education is a product of the development of educational technology. These videos are known as educational videos. They are designed for schools and other educational environments. Many of them are packaged as multimedia materials, including workbooks for students, teacher’s manuals, video transcripts, and audio cassettes, and are often graded for language use, conflict, and duration. According to Agommuoh & Nzewi (2003), videotaped teaching provides a semipermanent, comprehensive, and audiovisual record of an event.
The use of instructional videos is not novel. They date back to prehistoric times, when cave teachers utilized 16mm projectors to broadcast samples of insurance firm marketing ads to cave pupils enrolled in business courses (Berk, 2009). The use of instructional video as a change agent in the classroom has followed a distinct pattern throughout time. Initially, broadcast television and movies were utilized sparingly, largely as enrichment opportunities outside of the classroom (Greenberg, 2012). In the 1960s and 1970s, television films were popular. In 1980, videotapes were popular, and the 1990s saw the rise of Two-way videoconferencing, camcorders, and video CDs. DVDs, streaming movies, YouTube, and camera-equipped cellphones were popular in the year 2000 (Zanetis, 2012).
The benefits of instructional video as a significant tool for teaching and studying a wide variety of social studies topics might help students better comprehend and master the subject. Educators and students alike utilize instructional films to study, compare, and comprehend subjects.
The use of videotape recorders can increase teaching and learning in both big and small groups in a variety of ways. A film that has been meticulously organized might be an excellent beginning point for student discussion on critical topics in medical practice. Additionally, it has been noted in our field that using video presentations simplifies the explanation and demonstration of ideas and concepts pertaining to our subjects, which is advantageous to us (Harrison, 2003).
Students can also access video pictures via a website during their own study period. This example illustrates clinical situations, demonstrates clinical abilities, and stimulates student debate. When depicting clinical illnesses, it is essential for students to be familiar with the most prominent signs and symptoms of the most frequent clinical disorders. Movement problems are easier to see than to describe. As for demonstrating clinical abilities, the precise process for fundamental clinical skills may be demonstrated on video before students attempt these procedures on their own, hence assisting in the retention of the skills prior to performance (Harrison, 2003).
It makes sense to combine video with text, since it was considered that video is beneficial for more than only demonstrating dynamic processes. Video is a learning tool that, when used well, yields several benefits. Additionally, it is a platform for collaboration and a language with worldwide appeal (Kareem, 2003).
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The current pattern of teaching and learning is anticipated to transition from the old style to one that is more dynamic, adaptable, and learner-centered. There are several indications that instructional video can promote learning efficiently. Unknown is the report on the effective use of instructional video in teaching secondary schools in the state of Enugu State. Notable, the appearance of educational film without an instructor will not promote major improvements in learners (Kareem, 2003). Important to the implementation of instructional video in education are teachers. Students may not be able to utilize instructional video’s accessible potentials without the assistance of instructors. According to Ekpo (2015), teachers must actively incorporate instructional video into their lessons, and in order to do so effectively, they must possess the essential skills and competences for using instructional video.
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The primary objective of this study is to assess the effects of instructional videos on secondary students achievement. Specifically but not limited to, other objectives of this study are:
i. To determine the extent instructional videos are used in secondary schools.
ii. To examine the effects of using instructional videos to teach in secondary schools.
iii. To determine whether using instructional videos to teach affects students academic performance.
iv. To examine the challenges of using instructional materials to teach in secondary schools.
The following research questions which are in line with the objectives of this study will be answered:
i. To what extent are instructional videos used in secondary schools?
ii. What are the effects of using instructional videos to teach in secondary schools?
iii. Does using instructional videos to teach affects students academic performance?
iv. What are the challenges of using instructional materials to teach in secondary schools?
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Accordingly, students, educators, and scholars will dependably find the study to be of utmost value. Students will be able to interpret and comprehend instructional films that help the teaching and learning process, specifically video shows. The Study will serve as a resource for scholars and teachers who are interested in determining the effect of instructional films on students’ academic performance, particularly in secondary schools. It will also highlight the ideal tools for teaching social studies that will pique students’ attention and encourage their active engagement with the topic. The work will assist instructors to comprehend that the effectiveness of any teaching-learning activity is contingent on the extent to which students can learn or benefit from instruction. This can be accomplished with the use of suitable audio-visual assistance.
The study will serve as a resource for scholars who seek to conduct more studies on the effect of instructional films on students’ academic progress. The effort will also help researchers to comprehend the influence of understanding, demonstration, and collaboration on the utilization of instructional video in the teaching-learning process.
SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study is focused on assessing the effects of instructional videos on secondary students achievement. Specifically, this study is focused on determining the extent instructional videos are used in secondary schools, examining the effects of using instructional videos to teach in secondary schools, determining whether using instructional videos to teach affects students academic performance and examining the challenges of using instructional materials to teach in secondary schools.
Teachers and students of selected secondary schools in Nsukka, Enugu State will serve as enrolled participants for the survey of this study.
LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
This study is limited to assessing the effects of instructional videos on secondary students achievement. Specifically, this study is limited to determining the extent instructional videos are used in secondary schools, examining the effects of using instructional videos to teach in secondary schools, determining whether using instructional videos to teach affects students academic performance and examining the challenges of using instructional materials to teach in secondary schools.
Teachers and students of selected secondary schools in Nsukka, Enugu State will serve as enrolled participants for the survey of this study, this serves as a delimitation to this study as additional and adequate research is needed if this work is to be used anywhere else.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
Impact: A marked effect or influence.
Instructional video: Video that is used for teaching or training purposes, primarily focused on transferring knowledge; This may involve explaining ideas and concepts, and demonstrating processes.
Academic achievement: Academic achievement or academic performance is the extent to which a student, teacher or institution has attained their short or long-term educational goals. Completion of educational benchmarks such as secondary school diplomas and bachelor’s degrees represent academic achievement.