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Effect of Child Abuse on Student Academic Achievement, a Case Study of University of Agriculture Makurdi

Effect of Child Abuse on Student Academic Achievement, a Case Study of University of Agriculture Makurdi


Effect of Child Abuse on Student Academic Achievement, a Case Study of University of Agriculture Makurdi

Abstract of Effect of Child Abuse on Student Academic Achievement, a Case Study of University of Agriculture Makurdi

The phenomenon of child abuse illustrates vividly the emotional intensity of parents and children interactions. The concept of child abuse is seen from various perspectives as vivid by different people. Child abuse sometimes leads to low esteem and self-interest which in turn may encourage victims to engage in a variety of self-destructive behaviours. Individuals who have low self-esteem are prone to adopt deviant patterns of behaviours as a means of receiving attention from others and achieving a positive self- attitude. Hence, the study ‘Effect of Child Abuse on Students’ Academic Achievement’, a Case Study of University of Agriculture Makurdi attempts to examine the effect of child abuse on children’s academic achievements. The population of the study was made up of 150 adults and 200 children in Makurdi Local Government Area.

The research revealed very high responses from both the parents and children concerning the effects of child abuse on children academic achievement. Findings showed that item 1-5 in the questionnaire accepted the fact that child abuse has significant effect on children’s academic achievement as reflected in the context. The study also showed that parents forced their daughters or wards to early marriage against their wish. Furthermore, the inability of the parents to provide for their children as a result of poverty has forced the children to hawk wares on the streets in order to make ends meet. As a result of these, children play truancy in school. The study recommends based on the finding that it is pertinent for parents to ensure that the basic needs of their children/ wards are satisfied and limit tyranny in the home. Obviously, parents should as a matter of fact give birth to a number of children they can adequately and conveniently train and polygamy (marrying many wives) should be avoided. There should be parental guidance for children in terms of basic education, basic needs or rights, health care and protection. Teachers should use play method for teaching the children thereby creating a friendly environment for teaching and learning. Teachers should develop a motivating spirit for children and stop discouraging them by being harsh on them. They should provide them with real opportunity to express their views with respect and seriousness.



Title Page ———————————————————————–i

Approval page——————————————————————-ii

Declaration ———————————————————————iii

Dedication ———————————————————————-iv

Acknowledgement ————————————————————–v

Abstract ————————————————————————-vi  

Table of Contents—————————————————————vii

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION                       

1.1      Background of the Study ————————————————1

1.2      Statement of the Problem ———————————————–3

1.3      Purpose of the Study —————————————————-3

1.4      Research Questions ——————————————————4

1.5      Research Hypothesis —————————————————–4

1.6      Significance of the Study ————————————————4

1.7      Scope of the Study ——————————————————-5

1.8      Definition of Terms ——————————————————-5


2.1    Introduction ————————————————————–6

2.1.1 Concept of Child Abuse ————————————————–6

2.1.2 Type/Forms of Child Abuse ———————————————-7

2.1.3 Effect of Child Abuse —————————————————-10

2.1.4 Academic Achievement ————————————————–12

2.1.5 Conditions for Academic Achievement———————————14

2.1.6 Implication of Child Abuse on Academic Achievement—————14

2.2   Empirical Study———————————————————–15

2.3    Summary —————————————————————–17


3.1 Research Design ———————————————————–18

3.2 Population of Study ——————————————————–19

3.3 Sample and Sampling Techniques —————————————-19

3.4 Instrument for the Data Collection ————————————–19

3.5 Validation of Instrument ————————————————–19

3.6 Method of Collection ——————————————————-20

3.7 Method of Data Analysis ————————————————–20



4.1    Introduction ————————————————————-21

4.2    Data Presentation and Analysis– ————————————-21

4.2.1 Research Question One ————————————————22

4.2.2 Research Question Two ————————————————24

4.2.3 Research Question Three ———————————————-25

4.3    Procedure for Testing Hypothesis ————————————26

4.4    Discussion of Findings ————————————————-27



5.2    Summary —————————————————————-38

5.3    Recommendations ——————————————————38

5.3.1 To the Parents ———————————————————-39

5.3.2 To the Teachers ——————————————————–39

5.4    Suggestions for Further Studies—————————————40

REFERENCES —————————————————————–41

QUESTIONAIRE ————————————————————–43


Chapter One of  Effect of Child Abuse on Student Academic Achievement, a Case Study of University of Agriculture Makurdi


Background of the Study

The history of child abuse is as old as humanity. It has persisted from century to century with different outlooks and in severity despite remarkable advances, in scientific and technology knowledge, as well as the so called improved methods of child upbringing.

According to the African Network for the Prevention Against Child Abuse and Neglect (ANPACAN) (1999), child abuse is defined as any act of commission or omission that prevents a child from developing and functioning normally. An abused child is denied of his/her basic rights, education, survival, recreation, protection, good health among others. Research findings by governments, international organizations, human right groups, Universities and other bodies indicate that children constitute the more vulnerable groups in the society globally. Political, religious and ethnic extremists easily make use of the youths to destabilize nations, societies and communities worldwide. Most governments of the world do not have adequate policies and programme for the protection of the child.

            In Nigeria, the problem is often caused by a socio-cultural malaise, constitutional bottlenecks, economic imbalance, institutional contradiction and a pervasive ignorance and mentality by those who are expected to be protecting the right of the child like the Police, Prisons, Judicial and Social Welfare officers. One to those reasons there is the lack of:

  1. Legislative and policy framework to respond to the needs of the child, particularly their rights to health, education, basic nutrition and against force labour.
  2. Inadequate policy/ legislative framework and resources to take care of children’s needs within the ambits of the legal processes.
  3. Lack of expertise by the service provides to address the needs of the child.
  4. A child in Nigeria is any human being below the age of eighteen. Every Nigerian child is therefore supposed to be in one school or the other. If a child is not a baby and he/she is not in school, one of the following might be responsible:
  5.  He/she is not made available for school.
  6. A school is not available for him/her.
  7. A school is not accessible to him/her.
  8. He has or has been withdrawn from a school.
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Where any of the above happens, the child’s right might been violated. Even so there is a feeling, according to Child Rights Protection Initiative report of a two workshop on juvenile justice and the right of the Nigerian child, that the Nigeria child is one of the most abused, neglected, deprived, debased, defiled, exploited and dispossessed of his right in the world today, and also that Nigerians have more children out of schools than in it because of the following reasons:

  1. Dwindling economy.
  2. Political instability.
  3. Lack of accurate data.
  4. Inadequate educational structure.
  5. Poor child management.
  6. Absolute customary practice.
  7. Parental ignorance.

None of the above is the child’s fault, thus, he needs the protection of adults to survive under the law of his fatherland.

 Statement of the problem

The evidence of child abuse is in the case of Akor and Fayi. Akor, a tiv boy of 8years old who lost his father while in primary school. His uncle took him to his house at Kaduna at the age of 10years with the intension of sending him to school. Akor stays in his uncle’s house for two years without entering school.  Instead, he was forced to hawk wears on the streets. The boy Akor will hawk until when he finishes selling his articles before going home. Fayi, a girl of 12years hawks cooked groundnut around classrooms of the College of Sciences and College of Veterinary Medicine of the Federal University of Agriculture Makurdi, her primary education was interrupted at class six. She is starved and beaten by her guardian when she fails to make sales. A typical day for her begins at 5:30am by fetching water and other household duties chores. In one of the CRPI’s several trips to orphanage in Benue state, members discovered a nine month old boy abandoned in one of the suburb at Mkar near Gboko. The baby who is looking malnourished was born with clip pyrite problem. Clip pyrite is a sickness that destroys the nostrils. The baby therefore does not have the usual nostril associated with normal human beings. The mouth of the baby stretches on to the nostril. As a result of this, they find it difficult in feeding, thereby making him to lose weight. The baby is presently being rehabilitated by N.K.S.T orphanage Mkar. Other cases abound which demonstrate the prevalence of child abuse. The prevalence of child abuse has therefore constituted a problem for society. The work is therefore to investigate the effects of child abuse on the victim’s academic development.

Purpose of the study

        The general purpose of the study is to find out what constitutes child abuse and how it affects child academic achievement. The research work will find out whether the relationship that exists between the experience on the abuse and academic achievement is appropriate or is not appropriate, healthy, or not healthy.

The specific purposes of the study are:

  1. To find out the part played by parents/guidance on child abuse.
  2. To ascertain how child abuse affects children’s academic achievement.
  3. To assess the part played by teachers on child abuse.

Research Questions

Based on the statement of the problem, the following research questions are being raised to guide this study.

  1. What role do parents/guardians play on child abuse?
  2. How does child abuse affect student’s academic achievement?
  3. What part do teachers play on child abuse?

Research Hypotheses

Ho 1: There is no significant difference between the academic achievement of abused and non-abused student.

Ho2: There is no significant difference between the academic achievement of student staying with their parents and those staying with guardian.

Ho3: There is no significant difference between the part played in child abuse by parents/guardian and that played by teachers.

Ho4: There is no significant difference between the parent/guardian perception of child abuse and that of teachers.

Significance of the Study

The study would help identify forms of child abuse and how it affects the child’s educational career. The study would also be of immense importance to the academicians who may want to research further on the topic. The information would serve as a guide to their work. Also the results of the study would assist social workers, parents/guardians, counsellors, psychologists and sociologists to take special interest in helping the abused student in the society. The study would be useful to parents and the children who will understand what constitute child abuse. This is because some parents believed that beating of children is part of discipline that would change their rudeness, stubbornness and other childish behaviour.

Scope of the Study

This study examines how child abuse affects child’s academic achievement. The study is mostly limited to the effects and implications of child abuse on academic achievement. Adults and children found on the streets, schools, offices, roundabouts, motor parks, stadia are the respondents. It is covered with useful recommendations to eradicate it and if possible, reduce the trend of child abuse in the society.

Definition of Term

* Child Abuse- Is the physical, sexual or emotional maltreatment or neglect of a child.

* Academic – Academic is the community of students and school engaged in higher education and research.

* Achievement: Achievement is something accomplished, especially by supervisor ability, special efforts, great coverage etc.

* Student- A student is a learner, or someone who attend an educational institution.

*Effect- Effect may refer to a result or change of something.

* Hawking- it is defined as the carrying around and offered (goods) for sale, typically advertising them by shouting. 

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