Background to the Study
Over the past several years, HIV/AIDS has attracted as much attention in international circles as other pressing global challenges, such as war, terrorism, and environmental devastation, among others.World Health Organization (WHO) has declared HIV/AIDS to be one of the first global health emergencies and a direct threat to public health worldwide. The research shows that HIV/AIDS is the second most widely dispersed infectious disease and the sixth most common cause of mortality worldwide. (WHO, 2004). Around 65 million people have been affected by AIDS, and more than 25 million people have died from AIDS-related causes, according to UNAIDS (2006). By 2020, 29 million new infections are predicted to occur if prevention and treatment are not accelerated. This makes the predicament considerably worse. Although several nations have claimed success in reducing the number of HIV infections, the research also observes that the overall infection rate is rising. This is stated in the United Nations report on the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) for 2006. Sub-Saharan Africa is still seen as having been most badly affected (SSA). The top cause of mortality among adults in Africa, according to the WHO (2004), is HIV/AIDS. According to estimates, infections linked to AIDS are responsible for around 3.1% of deaths among men and 3.9% of deaths among women. According to a data sheet released by UNAIDS in 2006, 63 percent of all HIV/AIDS infections worldwide are located in Africa, south of the Sahara, with the incidence rate being highest among people between the ages of 15 and 49. African heads of state declared a state of emergency throughout the continent during the African Development Forum owing to the AIDS epidemic’s rapid expansion. What is the purpose of this? (2000).
Mbanya, Martyn, and Paul (2018) assert that the sickness has a large socioeconomic impact. High hospital bed occupancy is thus happening more frequently and affecting an expanding range of geographic areas. They continue by claiming that this overworked medical staff puts further strain on the health and education sectors, where it has been noted that teachers are less productive in a number of ways and morbidity is rising as a result of opportunistic infections. The country’s efforts to improve its social and economic conditions are obviously significantly hampered by the fact that around 42% of its population is under the age of 18. (Population Reference Bureau, 2009).
It’s not a new occurrence that a course on health and wellbeing has been added to the curriculum. Looking at the evolution of the curriculum in Nigerian schools reveals the many diverse techniques that have been used to address health-related issues. People in Nigeria’s official and informal education systems attempted to include lessons on population and family life in the curricula as early as the 1980s. By 1985, both junior secondary school (JSS) and senior secondary school (SSS) curriculums included instruction in reproductive health. These topics included biology, integrated science, physical and health education, home economics, and religious and moral education. Globalization has had a detrimental effect on many facets of our social existence. One effect of the disordered social life of our people as a whole is the HIV/AIDS pandemic.
Surprisingly, despite numerous efforts to educate our people on sexual issues and to persuade them to use condoms in order to limit their conduct, there has not been much progress in preventing HIV/AIDS. While this is appaling, stduies has shown that incorporating Seminars on HIV/AIDS and its Curriculum Development in secondary schools is key to curbing the spread of the diseases. Olusola Adara (2003) is of the opinion that secondary school science instructors think that teaching student about HIV/AIDS in the classroom will stop the pandemic that is brought on by the illness even though this arguable as factors like teachers experience, level of education, location (rural or urban), religion could intercept with their perception on how effective this strategy would be, against the backdrop that preceded the need for this study
Statement of the Problem
The number of persons who have passed away as a result of complications related to HIV/AIDS has steadily increased throughout the years. Claims and counterclaims regarding the existence of HIV/AIDS treatments have been made by a variety of individuals. Studies conducted by scientists have shown that there is currently no treatment or cure available for HIV/AIDS. Teachers of science in secondary schools have come to the conclusion that teaching HIV/AIDS education in schools may be utilized as a weapon in the war against AIDS as a result of the predicament that people have been forced into as a result of the absence of a cure for the debilitating HIV/AIDS.
As opine by Omolade (2019) One school of thought held the view that in order to address the issue of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, a new school topic should be created specifically for the purpose of tackling this issue. However, there is another school of thought that contends the addition of teaching about HIV/AIDS will be an attempt to overburden the already overcrowded school topics and over work the instructors. Owing to the differences in the ideas of scholars the problem of this study is designed to demographic variables influencing science teachers perception towards the inclusion of HIV/AIDS education in secondary schools.
PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY
The purpose of this study is to investigate demographic variables influencing science teachers perception towards the inclusion of HIV/AIDS education in secondary schools.Other specific objectives includes:
i. To ascertain whether location influences perception of science teachers’ on HIV/AIDS education inclusion in secondary schools.
ii. To investigate whether teaching experience influences perception of science teachers’ on HIV/AIDS education inclusion in secondary schools.
iii. To determine whether educational qualifications influences perception of science teachers’ on HIV/AIDS education inclusion in secondary schools.
iv. To examine whether gender influences perception of science teachers’ on HIV/AIDS education inclusion in secondary schools.
i. Does school location influences perception of science teachers’ on HIV/AIDS education inclusion in secondary schools?
ii. Does teaching experience influences perception of science teachers’ on HIV/AIDS education inclusion in secondary schools?
iii. Does educational qualifications determine perception of science teachers’ on HIV/AIDS education inclusion in secondary schools?
iv. Does gender influences perception of science teachers’ on HIV/AIDS education inclusion in secondary schools?
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study will be of great benefit to teachers, educators, curriculum developers, authors, parents, students and the general society. To the teachers, the findings will show their current view on HIV/AIDS education in secondary school. The study shall provide correct analysis of teaching which will help to reshape things for better. It will also provide remedial strategies in the reconstruction of school curriculum. The findings of the study will be of great importance to curriculum designers in planning for curriculum programme in schools. It will help them to know what to include in the content of the curriculum so as to help solve the problem of HIV/AIDS epidemic. To the educators, the finding of the will let them see the need to provide necessary in-service programme such as workshop, seminars etc. for teachers so as to increase their skills in teaching. To the authors, the finding of the study will help to structure their books in such a way that will simplify the content of the syllabus to the students. By the results of this study, authors will organize contents of their textbooks in such a way that students will be able to cope with themes of HIV/AIDS. The result of the study will also serve as basis for further research work in the area of using education to solve the problems of HIV/AIDS.
SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The scope of this study borders on a demographic variables influencing science teachers perception towards the inclusion of HIV/AIDS education in secondary schools. The study however delimited to selected secondary school in Uyo local government area in Akwaibom State.
LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
Like in every human endeavour, the researchers encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. The significant constraint was the scanty literature on the subject owing that it is a new discourse thus the researcher incurred more financial expenses and much time was required in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size covering only selected secondary school in Uyo local government area in Akwaibom State. Thus findings of this study cannot be used for generalization for secondary schools in other States within Nigeria. Additionally, the researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work will impede maximum devotion to the research. Howbeit, despite the constraint encountered during the research, all factors were downplayed in other to give the best and make the research successful.
OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
The following terms are defined for the purpose of this study:
AIDS: Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
Condom: Thin rubber covering wear on penis to protect sexual disease during intercourse
Defile: Proof wrong
Deplete: To reduce something by large number
Dilemma: Unpleasant thing or action
Epidemic: Disease attacking many people at the same time
HIV: Human Immune Deficiency Syndrome which leads to AIDS
Perception: To view or feeling about an issue
Precaution: Something done to prevent future trouble.