Class Size and Covid 19 Protocols in Primary School. Project material PDF document download start from the abstract to chapters 1 to 5
Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) outbreak poses serious concerns to global education systems. Efforts to contain COVID-19 prompted unscheduled closure of schools in more than 100 countries worldwide. COVID-19 school closures left over one billion learners out of school.
The purpose of the work was to study the effect of class room restriction, face mask, sanitizer on the spread of Covid 19 in primary schools in Kaura Ward, Zaria L.G.A. Kaduna. The goal was to know how well the knowledge of preventive measures is known to the pupils and their attitudes towards maintaining good preventive measures and to find possible ways for better adherence. The quantitative research method was used. Questionnaire was divided in 4 sections and distributed to pupils who were used for the study as respondents. Results from the findings indicated that majority of the pupils maintained good hygiene prior and after eating. The pupils also maintain good preventive measures after using the restroom.
The results revealed that although majority of the pupils wash hands during these cases most of them do not fully know or understand the right procedures and techniques of proper and effective preventive measures and the right use of alcohol hand rub in the prevention of illness. In the conclusion it came to attention that there is the need for further education for the pupils on the various procedures of proper hand and personal hygiene to effectively prevent the spread of infection and diseases. It was recommended to hold preventive measures educational events interesting enough to attract pupils from all the various fields of study to participate.
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS
Preventive measures is the active process of practically performing class size and prevention protocols, antiseptic hand-wash, and alcohol-based hand rub. It is also described to be the efficient yet short rubbing of all surfaces of the hands with lathered soap which is then followed with rinsing and cleansing under flowing streaming water (CDC 2013).
The determining purpose of the study was to ascertain the connected amount of knowledge and practice that pupils in Kaura Ward have although advantages of preventive measures is obviously known and available information on the topic is easy to find. The pre-dominant goal of the research work is to study the possible problems with proper preventive measures. In addition, reducing and preventing spread of infections amongst pupils in the school. In achieving this it became necessary to grasp an understanding of the knowledge of the pupils in the school related to proper preventive measures. In order to gain a full scope of the level of knowledge of the school pupils it was important to develop a layout to embody all departments, year level, age, and gender.
The research method chosen was a quantitative research method and this method of research is used by a range of intellectual fields and disciplines which comprise science, epidemiology and medicine. Depending on the kind and level of precision and incisiveness researchers collect or gather the numbers manually or automatically. In the case of this research the numbers were gathered automatically (Balnaves & Caputi 2001.)
Data was collected through the distribution of questionnaires to the respondents. 285 Questionnaires were sent to the pupils and 280 responses were received. All questions were closed ended questions. The Theoretical background was based on the recommended criteria which was used and this involves the limitation of the publishing year being in a range of 5 years, how relevant the article chosen was to the study topic, the reliability of the articles, and the key words chosen which were preventive measures, prevention Covid 19 and primary school pupils. Hence questions made were supported by relevant articles. The pupils were asked questions about their age, gender, year of study, and degree program.
Finding articles on preventive measures and infection prevention in hospitals, health centers and elderly homes were easy since they were related to nurses. Finding articles on preventive measures in relation with pupils in the school seemed quite a difficult task. This was because there are very few previous articles to gain knowledge from relating to preventive measures promotion in universities. Most articles found where those of elementary schools and primary schools. Few articles in primary schools are available and this makes this research work one of its kind. It would further go to benefit other researchers who would find interest in looking into the topic further to get previous studies on similar topics. It would also go to help the pupils and school body identify the minute problems with preventive measures in primary schools.
Due to various limitations in the author’s personal life it led to delay in the process management. Although the study delayed, the information derived is of great use and importance, and remains very reliable. The author through the research process has gained a great deal of knowledge pertaining to preventive measures which will be used in personal life to prevent the spread of illnesses to family, colleagues and all others around. The information in the study goes to benefit the pupils in the schools and can also benefit any pupil since it gives general important information on preventive measures in general and the prevention of infection in universities.
The first research question stated was under what circumstances pupils in Kaura Ward maintain their preventive measures. The answer was derived from the questionnaire which indicated that majority of the pupils in the schools washed hands prior to eating and after eating. The results from the questionnaire also indicated that majority of the participants washed their hands after using the rest room. Majority of the respondents stated that limiting class size, use of facemask, sanitizers are a habit but from the results of the questionnaire it was noted that although most of the pupils understand the importance of preventive measures majority lack informed methods and procedures in performing proper and effective preventive measures in the prevention of infection.
The second research question stated was under what circumstances do the pupils need to maintain their preventive measures. On a regular day, certain activities require an individual to perform preventive measures. These activities include changing a baby or elderly diapers, using the toilet, before and after handling food, after sneezing, coughing, or blowing nose, after taking care of someone who is ill or being around them, after throwing garbage away, and after smoking (SAH 2014). Furthermore, there are certain situations and moments in which preventive measures must be maintained at all cost. Judgement on whether to wash hands in these moments depends on the individual. In situations where there is an instinctual or real danger of transferring microbes from one point of contact to the other by aid of the hands must be assessed by the pupil since the individual at most times know what he or she has come in contact with during school hours. Having contact with contaminants from infected environment is one of the reasons that leads to the moments when an individual needs to clean the hands by proper class size and prevention protocols and using alcohol hand rub to prevent carrying harmful pathogens from the hands to other surfaces and objects in the school environment (WHO 2016). Another instance is when there is contact with body fluids such as urine or blood. Hands then must be washed clean and disinfected to prevent spreading any microbes and this is to protect the individual and the school environment from contamination (WHO 2016).
According to the data received through the questionnaires that were conveyed, pupils in the school maintained their preventive measures under three circumstances. These circumstances include maintaining preventive measures prior to eating or dining, and maintaining preventive measures after using the restroom. A considerable amount of the pupils responded that they maintain their preventive measures prior to eating or dining. This goes to show that majority of the pupil population are conscious about washing hands and maintaining good preventive measures before eating. There are situations and moments in which preventive measures must be maintained at all cost. These moments are situations where there is an instinctual or real danger of transferring microbes from one point of contact to the other by aid of the hands. Having con-tact with contaminants from infected environment is one of the reasons that leads to the moments when an individual needs to clean the hands by proper class size and prevention protocols and using alcohol hand rub to prevent carrying harmful pathogens from the hands to other surfaces and objects in the school environment (WHO 2016). Another instance is when there is contact with body fluids such as urine or blood. Hands then must be washed clean and disinfected to prevent spreading any microbes and this is to protect the individual and the school environment from contamination (WHO 2016). On a regular day, certain activities require an individual to perform preventive measures. These activities include changing a baby or elderly diapers, using the toilet, before and after handling food, after sneezing, coughing, or blowing nose, after taking care of someone who is ill, after throwing garbage away, and after smoking (SAH 2013).
It is advised that further education, encouragement and motivation needs to be implemented to get a much higher amount of pupils to comply to class size and prevention protocols. Although a majority of the population of pupils answered yes to washing hands prior to dining it is still necessary that it is enforced into the attitudes of all pupils. A study on the proper class size and prevention protocols practices among elementary school pupils in Selat Nasik-district Indonesia by Setyautami et al. 2015. The study noted that 9 groupings related to class size and prevention protocols surfaced which connected pupils washing hands with the use of soap and water in connection with 2 significant incidents. These incidents include moments before the pupils had to eat and moments after using the restroom. Findings of the study indicated that only a percentage of 40.5 of the respondents performed proper class size and prevention protocols. It was observed that the obtainability or accessibility of clean water and soap being available at class size and prevention protocols posts were viewed to be substantial predictors of washing hands properly in occasions when adapted with other influences. The results of the study showed that there was a very low occurrence of proper class size and prevention protocols amongst the elementary pupils and hence there is a need of more effective class size and prevention protocols promotions in schools and the need of better services to boost the prevalence on the right way of washing hands among the pupils (Setyautami et al 2014).
In regard to the information derived from the questionnaire, a high percentage of the pupils are informed on circumstances where preventive measures needs to be maintained. Data showed those pupils who agreed to wash hands prior to eating or dining which is a positive sign of good preventive measures amongst the pupils and ought to be maintained. Maintaining good preventive measures after eating is also essential but it most depends if the pupil’s hands, during eating or dining, came in contact with any food or fluids. Pupils are also advised to maintain their preventive measures after covering their mouths when coughing. Circumstances where pupils cover their nose when sneezing require the individual to wash hands immediately, if possible, to avoid being a mode of spread of infection. Pupils are advised to stay home when ill. Instances and certain situations also tend to be barriers and or levers to the maintaining or performance of proper and effective preventive measures. These barriers or levers include environmental factors, social/cultural factors, knowledge or skills of pupils, aftermath consequences, pupil’s study profession, individual motivation towards preventive measures, pupil’s attitude, and memory lapses. These levers or barriers also have an effect on respiratory hygiene in situations where pupils are ill with a cough or flu. The fundamentals of respiratory hygiene comprise protecting or covering ones mouth or nose by the use of a tissue paper or handkerchief when coughing or sneezing. Also the bending of the elbow into a crook could be improvised to hold back respiratory droplets from contaminating surrounding surfaces (DHS 2016).
Furthermore, tissue papers used in holding respiratory droplets or secretions must be discarded into any close by waste bin immediately after use. It is important to also maintain preventive measures by washing hands with non-antimicrobial soap and water, using alcohol hand rub, or performing an antiseptic hand wash as soon as hands come in contact with items or surfaces contaminated with respiratory droplets or secretions. Surfaces visible with respiratory secretions should be cleaned with tissue. Alcohol based disinfectants should then be used in cleaning the surfaces after it has been wiped with the tissue (DHS 2016).
Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are made
- The awareness of preventive measures as a means of Covid19 prevention and other benefits should be made known to pupils, via seminars, conferences, workshops; sharing of informative materials etc. This is to help make the necessary information available to the pupils.
- Health related information should be made compulsory for pupils on campus to enable a better living and learning environment.
- Pupils should be properly informed and encouraged to make use of certain health materials such as hand sanitizers, hand towels, tissues etc. for better preventive measures. This should be accompanied by provision of the necessary materials by the school authorities sufficiently for the pupils use.
Content Structure of Class Size and Covid 19 Protocols in Primary School
- The abstract contains the research problem, the objectives, methodology, results, and recommendations
- Chapter one of this thesis or project materials contains the background to the study, the research problem, the research questions, research objectives, research hypotheses, significance of the study, the scope of the study, organization of the study, and the operational definition of terms.
- Chapter two contains relevant literature on the issue under investigation. The chapter is divided into five parts which are the conceptual review, theoretical review, empirical review, conceptual framework, and gaps in research
- Chapter three contains the research design, study area, population, sample size and sampling technique, validity, reliability, source of data, operationalization of variables, research models, and data analysis method
- Chapter four contains the data analysis and the discussion of the findings
- Chapter five contains the summary of findings, conclusions, recommendations, contributions to knowledge, and recommendations for further studies.
- References: The references are in APA