Background of the study
One of the primary impediments to Nigeria’s current economic and social progress is the country’s high unemployment rate. Research has shown that unemployment rates were high in the 1980s; however, the reports that are available from a variety of local and international bodies, as well as the glaring evidence of joblessness in this decade, are clear indications that there has never been a time in Nigeria’s chequered history where unemployment was as serious as it is now (Abbah, 2019). One cannot legitimately arrive at the conclusion that the government in Nigeria, on some level or another, has not taken any action, at some point or another, to lower the country’s unemployment rate. For instance, the establishment of the National Directorate of Employment (NDE) and its various skills acquisition programs, such as NAPEP, PAP, the SURE-P, and YOUWIN, to name just a few, are examples of the various intervention mechanisms that have been developed in order to guarantee economic growth that is abundant with opportunities for the creation of new jobs. In addition, the Federal Government has, over the years, asserted that the real Gross Domestic Product growth rate has been solid, measuring at 6% or 6.5% from 2005 till the present (Aganga, 2019; Agbaegbu, 2022). There seems to be a contradiction. A circumstance in which there is a decade of excellent real GDP development of 6.5% economic growth, but at the same time, throughout that same period, the jobless rate continues to climb yearly, going from 11.9% in 2005 to 19.7% in 2009, and then over 37% in 2013%. (Essien, 2017; Adebayo, 2019). The seemingly positive economic growth has not been the driving force behind economic progress. The rate of poverty is still very high (Adegbami, 2020), the industries are still in shambles, technological development is still at a rudimentary stage, income inequality is high, both the immortal mortality rate and the child mortality rate are high, and in fact, Nigeria’s development index is still very low. According to Adegbami (2022), the high rate of unemployment is causing human resources that might have contributed to an increase in national income and indirectly to the development of the country to be underused. This could have led to an increase in both direct and indirect growth of the nation. As a result of their lack of employment, some young people have been engaged in illegal behavior as well as other “unpalatable economic practices.” Unemployed young people, for instance, are more likely to engage in criminal behavior such as prostitution, thuggery, hooliganism, pick pocketing, drug addiction and selling, armed robbery, and even hired assassination. This makes them suitable to be exploited by politicians as tools in their hands to achieve the obscene goals they have set for themselves (Adekeye & Aiyelabegan, 2016). According to the findings of the Nigerian National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) in 2017, which were derived from the definition of unemployment provided by the International Labour Organization (ILO), which states that those who are unemployed People in Nigeria who are considered to be unemployed are those who are in the labor force or who are of working age, which is defined as anybody between the ages of 15 and 64 who was willing and actively seeking for employment but was unable to find it for at least 20 hours during the reference period (NBS, 2017). According to the NBS, the rates of unemployment and underemployment have both increased to 16.6 percent and 23.1 percent respectively as of 2018. In other words, there is a correlation between the growing number of graduates from higher education institutions each year and the accompanying rise in young unemployment. Christian (2019) asserts that the government of Nigeria has continued to conceal the quarterly reports on job creation that are compiled by the National Bureau of Statistics as a means of protecting itself from additional criticism from the Nigerian people. According to him, the administration is attempting to prevent an avalanche of criticism from Nigerians by keeping the data hidden from the public. The findings, according to those who are knowledgeable with the matter, have not been made public since the unemployment rate has above 40 percent (Christian, 2019). According to Adenomon et al. (2016), one of the most significant problems with Nigeria’s current economic growth is the high rate of unemployment. The available reports from various local and international bodies, as well as the glaring evidence of joblessness in this decade, are clear indications that there was never a time in Nigeria’s history where unemployment was as serious as it is now. Research has shown that unemployment was high in the 1980s. One cannot legitimately arrive at the conclusion that the government in Nigeria, on some level or another, has not taken any action, at some point or another, to lower the country’s unemployment rate. The establishment of the National Directorate of Employment (NDE) along with its skills acquisition program, also known as NAPEP, PAP, the SURE-P, and YOUWIN, to name just a few of these programs. It is impossible to ignore the fact that the current administration just established N-POWER. The N-Power program was initiated in the year 2016, with the goals of combating youth unemployment and contributing to an increase in social development (Adenomon, 2017). In spite of the many different efforts that have been taken, it is anticipated that the jobless rate in Nigeria would reach 32.5 percent in the year 2021. In the year 2022, it is anticipated that this number would have grown even more. According to the chronological data, the unemployment rate in Nigeria has been steadily climbing over the course of the past few years. According to the Nigerian methodology (Kayode, 2022), the unemployment rate reached above 33 percent of the labor force in the fourth quarter of 2020, whereas the NBS estimates that the unemployment rate reached 33.3% in the fourth quarter of 2021. Therefore, the researcher aims to assess unemployment rate under Buhari administration( 2015 to 2022).
Statement of the problem
The rate of unemployment in Nigeria has reached such a high point that the problem cannot be solved by only holding campaigns or spreading information orally. In order to come up with a long-term solution to the problem, it was necessary to pool the resources of not just people but also the government of the nation in question as well as the whole global community (Box, 2018). Youth unemployment in Nigeria has had a negative impact, across a variety of socioeconomic axes, on the country’s overall economic growth and on the country’s young population. It should come as no surprise that Nigeria’s growth is hampered in a number of different ways by unemployment, particularly among graduates. In addition to the economic damage it has caused to the country, it also contributes to the political instability of the nation (Dobre & Alexandru, 2018). According to Christian (2019), the unemployment situation in Nigeria is troubling, and it is even more disappointing because the country’s economic position cannot absorb a fraction of its labor force that is desirable. Because an idle mind is always the devil’s workshop, this circumstance has led to the current rise in crime and other forms of social vice that our society has been experiencing. Another issue that plagued the job climate in Nigeria was one that concentrated on the country’s electricity production. The inefficient production of electricity in Nigeria is one factor that has contributed to the country’s high unemployment rate. The government of the nation, both in the past and in the present, has made significant attempts to address the issue of unstable power supply; yet, the country has seen very little, if any, improvement as a result of these efforts. Because the issue with the power supply cannot be resolved, the companies, institutions, and organizations that are supposed to offer the much needed employment are departing the nation in search of better chances, leaving our work force without jobs. The authors of this research want to find solutions to some of these problems. Hence, the study will assess unemployment rate under Buhari administration from 2015 to 2022.
Objective of the study
The general objectives of the study is to assess unemployment rate under Buhari administration from 2015 to 2022. The specific objectives is as follows:
i. To examine the factors responsible for unemployment under Buhari administration
ii. To find out the effect of unemployment under Buhari administration
iii. To investigate the activities and programmes of the Buhari administration in its efforts to tackling unemployment problems in Nigeria.
iv. To recommend a way forward in reducing the rate of unemployment in Nigeria.
The following questions have been prepared for the study:
i. What are the factors responsible for unemployment under Buhari administration?
ii. What is the effect of unemployment under Buhari administration?
iii. What are the activities and programmes of the Buhari administration in its efforts to tackling unemployment problems in Nigeria?
iv. What are the recommend way forward in reducing the rate of unemployment in Nigeria?
Significance of the study
This study will be significant to government as it will be exposed to the high rate of unemployment in the country and at such strategize on how best to curb the menace of unemployment in other to avoid a high rate of criminal activities in the country.
The study will be of benefit to the academic community as it will contribute to the existing literature.
Scope of the study
The study will examine the factors responsible for unemployment under Buhari administration. The study will also find out the effect of unemployment under Buhari administration. The study will further investigate the activities and programmes of the Buhari administration in its efforts to tackling unemployment problems in Nigeria. Lastly, the study will recommend a way forward in reducing the rate of unemployment in Nigeria. Hence, the study will be delimited to the president Muhammadu Buhari administration from 2015 till 2022.
Limitation of the study
Like in every human endeavour, the researchers encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire, and interview), which is why the researcher resorted to a moderate choice of sample size. More so, the researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.
Definition of terms
Unemployment: the state of being unemployed.