Background to the Study
There is no denying that education is critical to any nation’s social, political, and economic progress. This is why most countries seek to dedicate a significant amount of their Gross National Income on educational development. In Nigeria, education accounts for between 7.6% and 9.9% of total annual expenditure (Durosaro, 2003). The proportion allocated in the approved national budget is intended to finance construction and recurring school expenditures. The physical structures, which are capital intensive, account for the majority of the cost, and the physical environment of a school adds a great deal of value to the school (Obong, 2007).
At her study, Egim (2003) discovered that the physical environment has an impact on the administrator’s role performance in the school, either positively or adversely. Buildings, classrooms, furniture, equipment, instructional materials, laboratories, libraries, and play fields are all part of the school’s physical environment. Walls, machines, decorative objects, play fields, ice rinks, swimming pools, and audio-visual equipment are among the others (Mckay, 1964 in Egim, 2003). According to Egim (2003), in order to extend the educational enterprise, educational planners are more concerned with concerns such as the number of schools, teachers, and students’ infrastructural facilities such as classrooms and school buildings. The environment’s quality receives little attention (Obong. 2010).
The physical appearance of the educational environment is critical in promoting healthy academic exercise. It serves as the pivot around which all other activities revolve. This is because it produces a mental environment conducive to learning. The complexity of establishing and administering a school environment while taking certain elements into account is enormous; one of these parameters is the school location. The location of a school can greatly influence a student’s mental stability for academic preparedness.
A school positioned along an air-traffic path, on the side of a road (particularly without a barrier), near industrial activity, marketplaces, and so on will be a nuisance and interfere with the children’ learning process. It will make enough noise to detract from the learning adventure. School supervision and sanitation, according to the National Teachers’ Institute (NTI, 2008; Mckay, 1964 in Egim, 2003). These have the potential to impact the quality of the learning environment. This refers to all of the measures used by a school system to manage waste (noise, water, and other effluents), drainage patterns, and school infrastructure. Greening the educational environment is also critical. According to Sanitation Connection (2001/2002), a school administration that offers sanitation and planting of flowers, trees, and maintaining lawns, well cleared grasses, and so on improves the quality of life and study environment. Another part of school management is the aesthetics of the school environment. Regular painting and maintenance of building quality, sewage channeling, well-planned landscape and flower trimming, removal of grasses, proper disposal of garbage, sweeping and eliminating insect webs, and other activities give a relaxing environment for mind molding. All of the challenges described above are examples of school environmental management solutions that could transform a school into a place where students want to stay.
Despite this critical top-of-mind issue, virtually little has been done to manage school environments for beneficial academic endeavor. It is vital to undertake research on the tactics used in Nigerian secondary schools to manage the school environment.
Statement of the Problem
There has been much debate about the academic performance of Nigerian secondary school students. Students’ dismal performance, particularly in the Senior Secondary Certificate Examination, has definitely lent validity to this study. Academic performance and students’ success in the Senior Secondary Certificate Examination is thus a recurring subject, which is generally discussed both inside and outside of academic circles. Based on the preceding, this study investigates the concept of academic performance in relation to students’ backgrounds, learning resources, and academic achievement. Most secondary schools have a significant percentage of students that perform very poorly in WAEC and NECO due to students’ disinterest in education, a lack of professional teachers, lazy teachers, and a lack of teaching and learning facilities and equipment. It is well known that each level of education, as well as the subject being taught, has its own set of goals and objectives. If the goals and objectives of education, particularly those of teaching and learning in senior secondary schools, are to be met, the school environment and learning facilities must be improved.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study is to assess the impact of school environment have on students’ academic achievement in West African Senior School Certificate Examination (WASSCE) in selected senior secondary schools in Surulere, Lagos State. Specifically, this study will;
1. Examine available learning facilities in Senior Secondary Schools
2. Find out the influence of available facilities on students academic performance in WASSCE
3. Assess impact of School physical environment on students’ academic performance in senior secondary school
4. Identify if school facilities effectively used aid teaching and learning in secondary schools
The following hypotheses are tested in this study:
i. H0: Available school facilities will not significantly influence secondary school students’ attitude towards learning.
ii. H0: School facilities will not significantly influence the performance of students in West African Senior School Certificate Examination (WASSCE).
iii. H0: School environment facilities will not significantly influence academic achievement in secondary schools.
iv. H0: School facilities are not effectively used aid teaching and learning in Secondary Schools.
Significance of the Study
The purpose of this research is to examine and determine the impact of the school environment and facilities on the academic performance of secondary school pupils. The study’s findings will help teachers understand the importance of improving teaching and learning aids. The study’s findings will also assist educationists and policymakers in developing policies that will assist school administrators in creating conducive and enabling environments capable of developing, promoting, and enhancing positive and effective teaching and learning for students in secondary schools.
Scope of Study
Because no single study can cover all aspects of the subject, the researcher intends to concentrate on the relationship between school facilities, school atmosphere, and performance in the West African Senior School Certificate Examination. The study focuses mostly on secondary schools in Ikwo Local Government Area of Ebonyi state.
Operational Definition of Terms
Academic Performance:- Knowledge attained or skills developed in school by test scores.
Secondary school 🙁 Also ‘high school’) is a term used to describe an educational Institution where the final stage of schooling known as secondary education and usually compulsory up to a specific age takes place. It follows primary education and may be followed by University (tertiary education).
Environment: Can be seen as the physical and social characteristics of the child’s home, neighbourhood and wider world.
School environment: These are objects and patterns of relationship that outside and within the school system that significantly influence or are influenced by teaching and learning situation such as teaching and learning material, classroom size, social group e.t.c present within and outside the school also the locality of the school.