Public Administration Project Topics

Assessing Post ENDSARS Protest Effect on Lives and Properties in Nigeria





In 1992, the Special Anti-Robbery Squad (SARS) was formed by Simeon Danladi Midenda to combat armed robbery and other serious crimes. Before its formation, the Nigeria Police Force generally oversees the anti-robber responsibility until the anti-robbery unit was formed as a distinct department in 1992 to undertake criminal investigations and other specified duties.

The inciting events that spurred SARS’ formation were the death of Colonel Israel Rindam (Nigerian Army) by police officers at a checkpoint in Lagos on September 1992. This scenario warranted strike by police officers as they withdrew from checkpoints, security areas, and other points of interest for criminals; some police officers allegedly resigned while others fled for their lives (Iheancho 2003). Due to the absence of police for two weeks, the crime rate increased. In response, SARS was formed with an initial force of fifteen men and two Peugeot station wagons and has developed since its formation. In the early days of the unit, combat-ready SARS officers operated undercover in plain clothes and plain vehicles without any security or government insignia and did not carry arms in public (Daniel 2009). For 10 years, SARS only operated in Lagos, but by 2002, it had spread to all 36 states of the federation as well as the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja. It was counted as one of the 14 units under the Nigerian Police Force Criminal Investigation and Intelligence Department (Deleke 2003). Its mandate included arrest, investigation and prosecution of suspected armed robbers, murderers, kidnappers, hired assassins and other suspected violent criminals (Frank 2008).

Emboldened by its new powers, the unit moved on from its main function of carrying out covert operations and began to set up roadblocks, extorting money from citizens. They remained in plain clothes but at this time carry arms in public (Joe U.D 2015).

Over time, the unit be came implicated in widespread human rights abuses, extrajudicial killings, torture, arbitrary arrests, unlawful detention and extortion. Hence these inhumane sadistic callous and fiendish emanated the protest calling for its dissolution (Ade 2020).


Protest is a medium through which the weak can seek to influence the ruling authorities (Adekunle 2007). Protest complements other means of influence, such as political parties (the enactment of laws) and legal advocacy before the courts. According to Zagard (1996), Public protest is by definition a non-institutional means of attempting to influence the authorities. In the view of Chukwudi (2003), Protests conveys messages, and carry symbolic content. Hence its purpose is to make a claim or express a grievance. More generally, a protest can be considered as a “message events.”

Furthermore, the EndSars protest in Nigeria was as at the beginning a peaceful expression of grievances against the outrageous brutality of Special Anti-Robbery Squad unit of Nigerian Police which was carried out by Nigerian Youths on 13 October 2020. the protest was as a result of leadership failure as affirmed by Ifeanyi Okowa (Delta State Governor). The social movement commenced as a peaceful and well executed protest until its blood and violent advent as it took a war surface across over 6 states of Nigeria. Hence the outbreak of this worrisome violent scenario resulted to massacre and assassination of both protestants, armed officers and destruction of properties. Therefore the major interest of this study is to investigate and examine the effect of post EndSars protest on lives and Properties in Nigeria.

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The EndSars peaceful protest took an unprecedented phase as it turned violent, pernicious, obnoxiously brutal and bloody. More also, the event ended up with human lives being lost, private and public properties destroyed and burnt across several locations in Nigeria. This is as a result of the shootings carried out by some Nigerian Army and Police officers at unarmed protesters. Hence this reciprocally emanated the destruction of properties across Nigerian states by hoodlums. There for these scenarios necessitated this study.


This study investigates and examines the effect of post EndSars protest on human lives and properties in Nigeria. Other specific objectives includes;

  1. To investigate the extent to which armed police men shooting at the armless peaceful protestants affected the citizens.
  2. Undergo a survey on the states that experienced destruction and loss of human lives as a result of the post endsars protest.
  3. To determine the kind of properties that were destroyed during the post endsars protest.


  1. what is the effect of the post EndSars protest on human lives and properties in Nigeria?
  2. To what extent did armed police men shooting at the armless peaceful protestants affected the citizens?
  3. What states experienced destruction and loss of human lives as a result of the post endsars protest?
  4. What categories of properties were burnt and destroyed during the hazardous protest?
  5. What was the reaction of Nigerian Youths towards the open-air killing by armed police men during the protest?


Every aspect of this study will be of immense relevant to the Nigeria Government and the Police Force as it exposes the consequences of mistreatment of the citizens whose fate is geared on them. And the recommendations of this study on how mass protest by citizens are managed will in no doubt be useful the the Government. This study also will serve as an academic material to students, researchers and the general public.


This study is focused on the investigation towards the effect of the post endsars protest on human lives and properties in Nigeria. Hence due the large nature of the country, this study is limited to residence of Lagos State Nigeria.


The major limitations the researcher encountered while carrying out this research work were insufficient finance, inadequate time and unavailability of relevant materials in this research area.


SARS: this in full is called Special Anti-Robbery Squad. It a department of Nigeria Police Force formed in 1992.

EndSars: This is a decentralized social movement, and series of mass protests against police brutality in Nigeria.

Protest: A protest is a public expression of objection, disapproval or dissent towards an idea or action, typically a political one. Protests can take many different forms, from individual statements to mass demonstrations.

Police Brutality: This is the excessive and unwarranted use of force by law enforcement. It is an extreme form of police misconduct or violence and is a civil rights violation. It also refers to a situation where officers exercise undue or excessive force against a person.

Massacre: A massacre refers to the killing of multiple individuals and is usually considered to be morally unacceptable, especially when perpetrated by a group of political actors against defenseless victims.



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