Education Project Topics

Analysis of Student Knowledge on Climatic Change and Environmental Preservation in Some Selected Schools





Climate is the average weather state during a period of more than thirty years. Many elements influence a region’s climate, including the quantity of sunshine it receives, its elevation above sea level, the form of the terrain, and its proximity to the ocean. The global climate of the planet’s climate is described as while, with all regional differences averaged. The energy trapped in the system determines the overall world climate. This quantity varies depending on the climate. Climate change is defined by Martins (2017), as a shift in the statistical distribution of weather across time periods ranging from decades to millions of years. Climate change is now commonly used to refer to changes in modern climate, particularly in the context of environmental policy. It might be classified as man-made climate change, sometimes known as “global warning.” People began burning more coal and oil for residential factors and transpiration about a hundred years ago, releasing carbondioxide and other greenhouse effect gases into the environment, causing it to warm faster than in the past.

Changes in climate are caused by processes such as variations in earth orbits, mountain-building and continental drift, and changes in greenhouse gas condensations. The sun is the most important source of energy for the earth. Long-term and short-term variations in solar intensity are known to have an impact on global temperature. Three to four billion years ago, the sun emitted just 70% of the power that it does now. Liquid water should not have existed on Earth if the atmosphere’s composition had been the same as it is now. Changes in the seasonal distribution of sunlight reaching the Earth’s surface and how it is spread over the world are caused by minor differences in the Earth. The area averaged annually averaged sunlight fluctuates fairly little, but the geographical and seasonal distribution might alter dramatically (Francis 2017).

Fluctuations in Earth’s eccentricity, changes in the tilt angle of Earth’s axis of rotation, and Earth axis procession are the three forms of orbital variations. Volcanism is the process of transporting materials from the Earth’s crust and mantle to the surface. Volcanic eruptions, geysers, and hot springs are examples of volcanic processes that discharge gases and/or particles into the atmosphere. Anthropogenic influences are human-caused environmental changes. In some cases, the claim of causality of human influence on the climate is direct and ambiguous, while in others, it is less clear. The most concerning anthropogenic factor is the increase in CO2 levels caused by emissions from fossil fuel combustion, followed by aerosols and cement manufacture. Other factors such as land use, ozone depletion, animal agriculture, and deforestation are also of concern in the roles they play both separately and in conjunction.

Climate change in the recent past may have been recognized by changes in habitation and agricultural patterns. Various civilizations’ climate change. Due to melting glacier ice and the expansion of warmer sea water, sea level increased roughly 15cms throughout the twentieth century. Models estimate that sea level may rise as much as 59cm by the end of the twenty-first century. The coaster community, moist land, and coral reefs are all intertwined. Although rainfall creates floods in many locations, average temperatures have resulted in more heavy rainfall in certain areas.



The study of climate change and environmental related issues as been of much global concern in recent years, this could be easily attributed to the ozone layer depletion and this has and still has economic, social and political effect on the world over. Waterloo (2015) observed that extreme drought is becoming more common, with greater temperatures produced by rapid evaporation and increased dryness in some parts of the world. As the temperature rises, organisms may either relocate to cover habitat or die, causing the ecosystem to change. Tespian (2021) established particularly sensitive species include endangered species, coral reefs, and arctic animals. Warmer temperatures have an impact on human health, with more deaths due to heat waves and more allergy attacks as the season lengthens. Sea water getting more acidic owing to C02 dissolving in the oceans . more so, climate change effect agricultural ecosystem in supplying sufficient food for the globe people as the population reach six billion and as land, H20 and ecosystem resources are degraded via over usage.

To buttress Matthew and Isreal (2018), agriculture and water resources are connected to climate if greenhouse gas accumulation in the atmosphere continues unabated. Examples of flora affected by climate change include blue bells and quever trees. Climate change, as well as changes in animal pole ward and elevational shifts linked with regional warning, raise the likelihood of extinction for species that are unable to adapt or have restricted habitats. Environmental preservation, on the other hand, is the protection of natural resources from damage caused by human contracts or specific human activity like as logging, hunting, and fishing, and the replacement of these activities with human activities such as tourism and recreation. Finally, it is critical to recognize that human actions are a response to climate change

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Although there are several literature on climate change but not related to secondary school student, in the light of this there has been a ice of public awareness program but the basic engorge of the work is the knowledge of this subject matter among student in secondary school in Lagos State.


The broad objective of this study is focused on an analysis of student knowledge on climatic change and environmental preservation in some selected schools. Other specific objectives includes:

i.          To ascertain the awareness level of climate change and environmental concept among secondary school student.

ii.        To investigate whether secondary school students have understanding of environmental concepts and climate change.

iii.      To establish whether gender differences is a determinant  of students knowledge on climate change.

iv.      To examine whether  type of school (public and private) attended is a determinant  of students knowledge on climate change.

v.        To find out if the school location (urban or rural) is a determinant  of students knowledge on climate change.


vi.      What is the awareness level of climate change and environmental concept among secondary school student?

vii.    Do secondary school students have understanding of environmental concepts and climate change?

viii.  Does gender differences is a determinant  of students knowledge on climate change?

ix.      Does type of school (public and private) attended by study  a determinant  of their knowledge on climate change?

x.        Is school location (urban or rural) a determinant  of students knowledge on climate change.


Biology is a core subject. Studying biology enables man to understand himself and his environment. The knowledge of climate change and environmental pressurization is applicable to other disciplines such as medicine, agriculture, historical geographical and many more.

1.   The result of this work will invariably spur school authorities and teachers to improve on the use of instructional materials and various techniques of teaching hence bring about effective learning in students.

2.   The students will also learn better on the application of climate change and environmental preservation of their communiter to their day to day activities and its application in solve social and environmental problems.

3.   Communities will benefits the most because the students are a part of the community, the more competent and skill feel students the better communities.

4.   It will create the need for educational agendas such as curriculum planners, curriculum innovators and curriculum designers to plan effectively and give adequate coverage to environmental and climate change issues at secondary school level.


The scope of this study borders on an analysis of student knowledge on climatic change and environmental preservation in some selected schools. The variables to be studied in relations to student knowledge is hinges on demographic variables like Type of school i.e public/private, School location i.e rural/urban  and  Sex/gender i.e male/female.  This study will cover some selected senior secondary schools in Akwa South, Anambra State.


During the process of carrying out this study, the researcher was confronted with a number of obstacles, some of which were limitations pertaining to time and finances, as well as difficulties pertaining to language and the attitudes of the respondents. Nevertheless, the researchers were able to overcome these obstacles in order to guarantee the success of this investigation.

In addition, the case study approach that was used in the research presented the investigator with a number of difficulties, such as the chance of making erroneous judgments and being subject to prejudice. In spite of this, the investigator was successful in overcoming the difficulties by adhering to the broad principles of respect for processes, justice, fairness, impartiality in observation and recording, and the weighing of evidence.



Rural areas are the very undeveloped areas in the state, it could either be located within the urban setting or out skirt of  the urban settings. Rural in the sense of application in this study hinges mainly on the underdevelopment status of the areas.


This is an area of continuous urban development. Urban areas may be cites, town or combinations. Urban in the sense of application in their study hinges mainly on the well developed status of the area.


This is define as a set of characteristics that are seen to distinguish between male and female gender has several contiversial definition but here refers to am individual inner sex or psychological sense of being a male or female irrespective of ones outer sex identity as determined by one’s sexual organs. There are two man gender masculine (male) feminine (female).

Climate change

This is a change in the average weather condition or change in the distribution of weather events with respect to an average e.g greater or fewer extreme weather event.

Environmental Preservation

This is define as the setting aside of natural resources to prevent damage caused by contact with humans or by human activities such are logging. Miming, hunting e.t only to replace them with new human activities such as tourism and recreation.



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