Business Administration Project Topics

An Investigation of Motivation and Its Effect on Staff Retention in Public Second Cycle Institutions in Cape Coast, Ghana





Individuals are the elements around which competitive edge is created in the field of education, whether in the public or private sector (DeSimone, Werner, & Harris, 1998). Human resources are an organization’s lifeblood; while many organizations have incorporated technology to manage their businesses, these technologies require human resources to operate. Human capital accounts for a significant portion of global wealth. As a result, human resource management is critical in the process of boosting a company’s effectiveness. Human resource management refers to the policies and methods used by managers in recruiting, selecting, developing, utilizing, rewarding, and maximizing the potentials of an organization’s human resources (Joy-Mattews, Megginson, Surtees, 2004). Many studies have demonstrated the impact of human resource practices on the performance of enterprises from various nations, including the United States, Europe, and Africa (Boselie, Paauwe, Jansen, 2001; Bjorkum & Xiucheng, 2002; Ghebregiogris & Karsten, 2007).

Human resources are an organization’s most critical and dynamic resource. Organizations, on the other hand, face the issue of acquiring and maintaining these qualified human resources. Organizations are once again confronted with the task of consistently pleasing human resources. Human resources are an asset that may make or break a business. They can also cause an organization to fail. Motivation is one of the most crucial aspects of human resource management. This is due to the fact that motivation can motivate employees to give their all at work. The idea of motivation includes the individual’s traits, the situation, and the individual’s perspective of the situation (Ifinedo, 2003).

Employee motivation is defined as encouraging people to perform efficiently in order to achieve business goals, and this encouragement must always be goal-oriented (Olajide, 2000). At all levels of organizations, the value of inspiring employees is evident. Starting with managers who must be aware of the factors that motivate their subordinates in order for them to perform well, moving on to employees who must consider what expectations they have of their work, and finally to human resource professionals who must understand motivation in order to effectively design and implement reward structures and systems. Companies, without a question, require motivated personnel, and motivation is a vital part of human resource management. However, because of the complexities of human behavior, motivation is difficult to explain and apply. Despite numerous research on motivation, managers today are no closer to understanding their employees’ motivation than their predecessors more than a half-century ago (Kovach, 1980). Despite the fact that some studies suggests that money is not as influential as it appears to be, many firms attempted to use monetary incentives as their primary weapon to inspire staff. Performance-based remuneration became the new motto that was certainly adopted by many businesses (Frey & Osterloh, 2002).

Motivation, according to Benabou and Tirole (2003), is critical for describing and comprehending human behavior in the workplace. Work motivation is the desire and ability of employees to do an activity or task in the business in order to acquire and realize the firm’s corporate goals and objectives (Robbins, 2001).



Teachers in Ghana appear to be more dissatisfied. According to Bame (1974), dissatisfaction is caused by a lack of human resource development, poor remuneration, poor human interactions in diverse schools, and terrible working circumstances. As a result, there has been a large turnover among teachers, which has resulted in unhappiness. Evidence of low and sometimes delayed compensation has a negative impact on teacher morale and commitment (Sekyere, 2009). Some instructors are unable to find affordable housing and must thus drive significant distances to work. There is also a scarcity of fundamental teaching and learning tools to allow teachers to work. Teachers’ general strike changes have been forced by low remuneration and other motivational factors such as housing and extra tuition allowance.

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Frequent teacher strikes have a negative impact on student performance. This is because students take advantage of teachers’ absences from school to avoid studying, resulting in low student performance. Furthermore, research have indicated that demotivated instructors are more likely to be absent from school (Benabou & Tirole, 2003). This supports a frequent argument that a person who is unmotivated loses devotion to his or her work. According to Bennell (2004), it is regrettable that, despite the fact that there is a severe problem with retention and motivation at Ghana’s numerous Senior High Secondary Schools, there has not been much research on the subject, with only a few papers published on the subject.


The general objective of this study is to examine the effect of motivation on staff retention at public second cycle institutions in Cape Coast. Therefore, the following objectives are to;

1. Examine the retention intentions of teachers in public second cycle institutions.

2. Explore the factors accounting for teacher turnover at public second cycle institutions.

3. Explore the measures that can be used to retain teachers in Cape Coast public second cycle institutions.


The following questions guide this study;

1. What are the retention intentions of teachers in public second cycle institutions?

2. What are the factors accounting for teacher turnover at public second cycle institutions?

3. What are the measures that can be used to retain teachers in Cape Coast public second cycle institutions?


The study will provide information to the government, policymakers, and development partners about the relationship between motivation and staff retention in public second cycle institutions, as well as its development. The study will specifically provide headmasters and headmistresses with the knowledge they need to encourage employees in various public second cycle institutions.

The study will widen understanding on teacher motivation and how to channel their motivational issues, and what to expect from Cape Coast employees of second cycle universities. For other researchers, the study will highlight several critical issues affecting motivation and staff retention, generating interest in undertaking additional research on this topic.

The research will also add to the existing body of knowledge and literature on motivation and employee retention. The study’s results and recommendations will help to ensure the country’s much-needed industrial harmony for growth and development.


The research looked into the motivation techniques and staff retention in Cape Coast’s public second-cycle colleges. These motivational practices are evaluated in the context of public second-cycle institutions in Cape Coast, Ghana’s Central Region.


During the course of this study, the researcher was limited by insufficient finances and not enough time to delve deeper and wider into this study.


1. MOTIVATION: A reason or reasons for acting or behaving in a particular way.

2. STAFF RETENTION: Simply refers to the ability of an organization to retain its employees.



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