Background to the study
Academic performance is very essential in both school and the learning process. It is regarded as a crucial factor for assessing one’s complete potentialities and capabilities, which are commonly assessed via test results (Ayodele , 2018 and Yenagi& Osborne 2012). It is used to assess the educational quality provided by academic institutions. In reality, it is still the most hotly debated problem in higher education, causing tremendous anxiety among educators and academics because to students’ frightening test results (Nuthana and Yenagi, 2012). Everyone wishes for success, as the term indicates, but it does not come simply on a silver platter; one must work hard and diligently for it, which may be attained with a healthy study habit (Boehler Mike, 2011). The desire for success is derived from an individual’s concept of himself and in terms of the meaning of various incentives as they spell success and failure in the eyes of others; the desire for success is derived from an individual’s concept of himself and in terms of the meaning of various incentives as they spell success and failure in the eyes of others; the desire for success is derived from an individual’s concept of himself and in terms of the meaning of various incentives as they spell success and failure in the eyes of others (Boehler M. 2011).
Study habits are defined as a pattern of conduct acquired by students in the pursuit of their studies that acts as a learning vehicle. It refers to the extent to which a student participates in regular acts of studying that are defined by proper studying routines (e.g. content reviews, frequency of studying sessions, etc.) occuring in a favorable learning environment (Crede and Kuncel, 2013). In summary, students’ study habits are influenced by their capacity to manage their time, work techniques, attitudes toward instructors, mental stability, drug usage, and acceptance of education.
A review of the literature found that students’ study habits are crucial to their academic achievement. Many students fail, according to Rana and Kausar (2011), not because they lack aptitude, but because they lack proper study abilities. Students that struggle in school typically lack suitable study habits, which negatively influence their academic progress. Many of these kids had not learned how to take efficient notes or manage their time for studying, which was seen as a major issue (Mutsotso and Abenga, 2010). Furthermore, according to Nagaraju Amos (2014), students seldom spend enough time to their studies and rarely have good study habits. Study habits that are efficient are linked to a positive attitude toward learning in general. Academic achievement is positively associated to Otto &Dronge’s (2018) views in the value of intellectual pursuits and the necessity of education. There are a number of factors that influence study habits, but this research will concentrate on drug usage and mental health.
Undergraduate drug misuse in Nigerian higher education institutions has become an embarrassment to parents, schools, government officials, and the general public (Obiamaka M.H, 2014). Consistent drug usage among this group of adolescents may lead to mental illness (Obiamaka M.H, 2014). One can only pray that this heinous practice and its ramifications do not result in the spawning of mentally ill and insane kids. Because of the frequent and widespread drug crises in many Nigerian educational institutions, this worry is not theoretical. Several studies have also showed that substance misuse is a contributing factor to students’ poor study habits (Hollister and McGrath, 2016).
Substance or drug misuse, as well as mental health difficulties, are complicated by medical, social, cultural, and other factors, and are not only a medical or moral issue. People accept the use of some substances or narcotics under particular conditions as a benign and even good behavior, according to Hollister and McGrath (2016), since it is linked to societal and individual settings. The use of medications like Benylin with codeine and Tutolin with codeine for medical causes such as whooping cough is not drug abuse; it only becomes abuse when it is oriented toward developing desirable behaviors, physical dependence, addiction, and/or causing a societal nuisance (ObiamakaM.H, 2014). According to Abdullahi Mustapha (2013), the phrase drugs is a generic term that encompasses marijuana, alcohol, and traditional alcoholic beverages such as Ogogoro, Burukutu, Fito, and Bammi.
Nigerians use a variety of drugs in the same manner that people from other countries do. Nigeria’s populace, like the rest of the world’s population, uses narcotics when the situation calls for it. In Nigeria, drugs are misused simply because they are taken without proper permission from properly authorized and registered personnel who must allow their use according to the laws of the nation.
Several research on drug usage and sickness behavior among Nigerians support this conclusion (Obiamaka M.H, 2014). Marijuana, amphetamines, mandrax, proplus, barbiturates, and codeine are the most often abused drugs in Nigeria, according to Okonkwo Ibeh (2015), and they have detrimental consequences on students, youths, the immediate society, and Nigeria in general. Unfortunately, students, who make up Nigeria’s workforce and future, are disproportionately affected. 2013 (Abdullahi Muhammed). Nigerian youths aged 10 to 30 years make up around 49 percent of the country’s population, according to the Federal Ministry of Youths and Sport in 2010. According to the National Drug Law Enforcement Agency (2010), approximately 38% of Nigerian youths take drugs. According to Abang Adani (2016), many types of youngsters (male and female) in modern Nigeria are addicted to drug misuse, which is the most usually suggested factor in mental instability.
Subjective well-being, perceived self-efficacy, autonomy, competence, inter-generational reliance, and self-actualization of one’s intellectual and emotional potential are all included in the World Health Organization’s (2012) definition of mental stability. According to Abang Adani (2016), an individual’s mental stability is defined by their capacity to realize their potential, cope with regular life challenges, work productively, and contribute to their society.
Mental stability, according to the World Health Organization (2017), is the effective execution of mental functions that leads to productive activities, meaningful relationships with others, and the capacity to adapt to change and manage with hardship. As a result, the researcher believes that mental stability in kids is necessary for academic achievement. The numerous consequences of substance usage and mental stability on students’ study habits and sub-sequence academic accomplishment have been established by research findings. Unlike other determinants of study habits, substance misuse and mental stability are the most important concerns to address in students’ study habits since they have a significant impact on human cognitive performance. Hence, investigating of causes of drug abuse and mental stability as predictors of study habit of undergraduates.
Statement of the problem
According to WHO (2013), 22.1 percent of students utilize drugs. Today, a growing number of Nigerian students are getting addicted to drugs, as the country transitions from a drug-consuming to a drug-producing state. It is no longer news that students are using substances such as heroin and cocaine, which will inevitably affect mental health. Other narcotics often discovered in schools include Indian hemp, which is widely grown in Nigeria, as well as Methamphetamine and intoxication tablets containing codeine (Moses Cornmanne, 2012). Despite this societal background, no research has been done on drug misuse and mental stability as determinants of study habits among Nigerian students, necessitating this study. Undergraduate students’ study habits are harmed by illicit drug usage. In Nigerian universities today, there are an estimated 500,000 undergraduate drug users. In Nigeria, no academic institution is immune, and no student is really immune (Alabi Damina, 2012). It is well known that drug addicts have impaired cognitive performance. It is based on all these facts that the researcher perceives the need to investigate the causes of drug abuse and mental stability as predictors of study habit of undergraduates
Objectives of the study
The general objective of this study is to investigate the causes of drug abuse and mental stability as predictors of study habit of undergraduates while the following are the specific objectives:
i. To examine the factors responsible for undergraduate indulgence in drug abuse.
ii. To find out the effect of drug abuse on the mental stability of undergraduate students.
iii. To evaluate the extent to which mental stability have an effect on undergraduates study habit.
iv. To recommend ways of curbing drug abuse in other for mental stability and good study habits of undergraduate students.
The research questions of this study are as follows;
i. What are the factors responsible for undergraduate indulgence in drug abuse?
ii. What are the effect of drug abuse on the mental stability of undergraduate students?
iii. To what extent does mental stability have an effect on undergraduates study habit?
iv. What are the ways of curbing drug abuse in other for mental stability and good study habits of undergraduate students?
Significance of the study
The outcome of this research is significant to the following concerned groups
Students: it will educate and enlighten the students on the influence of drug abuse and mental stability on their study habit and academic success.
Parents: Findings from this study will form a guide for parents coordinating their children against drug abuse; ensure mental stability to guarantee good study habit and academic success.
School: This study will enlighten the school administrators on the extent to which drug use and abuse, mental stability can predict study habit and academic success of their students
Nation: The results from this work will enlighten the policy makers and the general public on the contribution of both drug abuse and mental stability to study habits of undergraduate. This is will therefore constitute a guide for the policy framework on the control of drug abuse and maintenance of mental stability among undergraduates.
Researchers: This research will also serve as a resource base to other scholars and researchers interested in carrying out further research in this field subsequently, if applied will go to an extent to provide new explanation to the topic
Scope of the study
This study will examine the factors responsible for undergraduate indulgence in drug abuse. The study will also find out the effect of drug abuse on the mental stability of undergraduate students. The study will further evaluate the extent to which mental stability have an effect on undergraduates study habit. Lastly, the study will recommend ways of curbing drug abuse in other for mental stability and good study habits of undergraduate students. Hence this study will be delimited to Redeemers University. Ogun state
Limitation of the study
Just like any other research, unavailability of needed accurate materials on the topic under study, and inability to get data were among the constraints the researcher encountered in the cause of this study. Financial constraint was equally faced by the researcher, in getting relevant materials and in printing and collation of questionnaires. Furthermore, time factor pose another constraint because the researcher have to shuttle between writing of the research and engaging in other academic work which made it uneasy for the researcher.
Definition of terms
Drug abuse: excessive and persistent self-administration of a drug without regard to the medically or culturally accepted patterns.
Study Habit: are the behaviors used when learning academic material and preparing for academic examinations.
Mental stability: a state of cognitive and psychological well-being in which every individual can work productively and fruitfully.
Undergraduates: a university student who has not yet taken a first degree.