BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
According to the Oxford Advanced Learners’ Dictionary of Current English, “contraceptives are drugs, devices, or practices that are used to prevent a woman from getting pregnant. ” 1 Even while this definition is comprehensive, it does not cover the use of condoms as a prophylactic step against the spread of sexually transmitted illnesses such as AIDS and HIV (Bugssa, 2014). The act of contraception has been around for a long time, dating back to our predecessors who planned when they would mate with their wives and when they would not, depending on whether or not they wanted to have children. They have a mental image of when their wives’ monthly menstrual flow occurs or how long their wives are required to breastfeed their children in order to prevent unwanted pregnancies. Others traditional women go so far as to wear contraceptive bands around their waists in order to avoid unwanted pregnancies, which is considered extreme by some (Konje, 1998). Approximately 75 million unplanned pregnancies occur each year in women all over the globe. Unwanted pregnancy may occur for a variety of reasons, the most common of which are that the couple did not use contraceptives or that the technique they were using failed. The lack of access to family planning information and services, incest or rape, personal or religious beliefs, a lack of knowledge about the risks of pregnancy following unprotected sexual relations, and women’s limited decision-making abilities with regard to sexual relations and contraceptive use are just a few of the reasons why people do not use contraceptives to prevent unwanted pregnancy. 2 A large number of women are denied access to family planning services (Nibabe, 2014).
In the industrialized world, the use of contraceptives by both men and women has been generally recognized and practiced for many years. This has not been the case in the developing world, where male chauvinistic cultural beliefs that women should protect themselves against unwanted pregnancies, rather than males making it possible for women to utilize contraception, have prevailed.
Even though the process of child carrying involves a collaborative effort on the part of both men and females, in the developing world, it is seen as a key responsibility of the female gender. The use of contraceptives among males in these places has not been promoted to the same extent as the use of contraceptives among women in these locations. Because of the patriarchal character of African culture, male contraception does not seem to be supported or encouraged, and instead, men are led to feel that they have no role to play in reproductive health and rights (Ameh, 2007).
In the industrialized world, the general public has outgrown the persisting misconceptions about contraception and the unfavorable attitude that males have about it. However, the fact that male contraception has not been supported in developing nations has resulted in a scarcity of information about it as well as a reduction in the desire to learn more about this topic. Men, according to studies, want better contraception available to them. The hypothetical male pill was named as one of the top three contraceptive options by 80 percent of the males who participated in a recent survey in the United Kingdom (Brooks, 1988).
Another survey found that more than 60% of men in Germany, Spain, Brazil, and Mexico were eager to try a new type of male contraception if it was offered to them (Heinemaan, 2006).
In another study titled “Why Nigerian adolescent seek abortion rather than contraception: Evidence from focus group discussions,” youths were asked about contraceptive availability, perceived advantages of the method used, side effects, and young people’s reasons for using or not using contraceptives, among other questions.
Researchers discovered that the fear of future infertility had an important role in teenage choices to choose induced abortion instead of contraception.
Contraception methods are more prevalent in the feminine gender than the male gender. Those belonging to the feminine gender are as follows:
The Combined Pill:
These are oral contraceptives that are available in two forms: eniphasic pills and biphasic pills, as well as Everyday/ED tablets. Taking these as directed results in a 99 percent effectiveness. When taken on a daily basis, they include two hormones: estrogen and progestogen, and their action is to suppress ovulation.
This is a progestogen-only pill. When taken correctly and consistently on a daily basis at the same time, it is 98 percent effective. It creates alterations in the womb, making it more difficult for the sperm to enter the womb and carry out the pregnancy.
Depo-provera and Noristerat are two injectable contraceptives that are available.
It is successful in 99 percent of the instances. Furthermore, it inhibits ovulation by operating in a manner similar to that of the mini pill. It extends the duration of protection by up to three months. It may cause irregular periods and break through bleeding throughout her menstrual cycle. The effectiveness of the intrauterine device is 96 – 99 percent. It is a plastic or copper device that is put into the womb by a doctor to prevent the ovum or egg from settling in the womb and causing birth defects. With proper application, a diaphragm or cap may be 85-97 percent effective. It is a soft rubber device that is inserted into the vagina before sexual contact in order to cover the cervix and create a barrier that prevents sperm from contacting the egg during the encounter. It must be used in conjunction with a spermicide and remained in place for at least six hours following sexual contact. With proper use, sponges are 75–91 percent effective. Soft circular polyenthrane foam sponge that is inserted into the vagina up to 24 hours before sexual contact to cover and protect the cervix.
It already includes a spermicide in its formulation. Sterilization of the female reproductive system is a permanent technique of birth control in which the fallopian tubes are surgically blocked, preventing the egg from traveling down the tube to meet sperm. Despite its long-term effectiveness, it has an infrequent failure rate of 1:300, in which the tube rejion and fertility return.
Natural Methods (such as the “Safe Period” and the “Rhythm technique”).
Its effectiveness ranges between 85 and 95 percent.
This method is used in order to forecast ovulation at the period when the woman is most fertile. Sexual contact is avoided during this time.
In order to use this approach, you must take daily measurements of your body temperature while also noting variations in vaginal nuclear temperature and other symptoms of ovulation.
The following are examples of male contraceptive methods:
It is successful in 85 to 98 percent of instances when used correctly.
It is comprised of a thin rubber and is worn on the penis while it is in an erect position.
It stops sperm from accessing the female reproductive system.
In addition to protecting both parties from sexually transmitted infections, it also protects the woman against cervical cancer.
Menstrual Sterilization (Vasectomy): This is a permanent method that consists in the cutting or blocking of the tubes that carry sperm from the testicles to the penis (vas deferens). It is used to prevent pregnancy.
It is a permanent form of contraception, similar to the tubal ligation procedure used in women.
It is necessary to utilize another form of contraception for around 3 months after a vasectomy in order to completely remove the sperm from the tube.
The failure rate of this approach is one in every one hundred occurrences.
c. Withdrawal Procedure: Although this method is often ineffective, it is nevertheless used by some people.
Before ejaculation takes place during orgasm, they remove the penis from the body.
It is ineffective because it does not address the issue of sperm that are transferred into the vagina before the orgasmic experience occurs. The use of emergency contraception can prevent pregnancy after unprotected sexual encounters, after a contraceptive accident or misuse (such as a condom breakage or a failed coitus interruptus), or in the case of rape, among other situations. There are two main methods of contraception that may be used in an emergency situation:
A. Contraceptive pills for use in an emergency (ECPs)
b. Intrauterine device composed of copper (IUDs).
It is necessary to employ these two treatments within a few days following an unprotected sexual encounter.
They are completely safe for the majority of women.. ECPs contain the same hormones as family planning pills, but they are administered in a different manner.Both the egg release and the fertilization of an egg are prevented by these medications.
They immobilize sperms and impede their motility, which prevents fertilization of the egg and alterations in the uterine lining, both of which are detrimental to achieving pregnancy.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
It is true that most of our households provide inadequate sexual education, with the notion that providing sexual education would cause the kid to be promiscuous or to put what they have learned to the test. However, we all know that such beliefs have outlived their usefulness in modern culture, and coitus will continue to exist regardless of whether people are educated or not. The acts of others will always be impacted by their peer groups, and those who have not yet been exposed to the behavior will learn it in a bad manner (Ameh, 2007). As a result, it is now the responsibility of adults to educate the adolescent or early adult population about the importance of reproductive organs, the use of contraceptives to limit the occurrence of undesired births, and even illnesses of the reproductive system. The purpose of this research is to encourage parents and school officials to educate our younger generations so that they are well-versed on the subject of contraception and family planning. This will result in an increase in the number of unwanted births, sexually transmitted illnesses, and an unnatural growth in the population of the society if this does not take place.
OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The general objective of the study is an investigation into understanding and practice of contraception among students of college of education. Specifically, the study will be guided under the following:
i. To examine if students of college of education understand the use of contraceptive.
ii. To find out if student of college of education practice the use of contraceptive.
iii. To evaluate effect of understanding and practicing the use of contraceptive among students of college of education.
iv. To proffer ways of increasing the understanding and practice of contraception use among students of college of education.
The following questions have been prepared for the study
i. Do students of college of education understand the use of contraceptive?
ii. Do student of college of education practice the use of contraceptive?
iii. What is the effect of understanding and practicing the use of contraceptive among students of college of education?
iv. What are the ways of increasing the understanding and practice of contraception use among students of college of education?
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Over the years, especially in Africa, the need for contraception and control of population using female methods of the pill, injectables etc have been adapted. Before now only the condom and withdrawal method has been used by men.
The increasing need for male contraception cannot be over-emphasized as humans are more aware of the fact that, there need to be a greater co-operation between spouses for family and reproductive health to grow and blossom; with greater understanding that everyone involved will contribute their quota to the success of the family.
To this extent therefore, there is the dire need for the study of this nature to identify the contraceptive devices possibly of use now, the knowledge of their use, how well adolescent comply with their use, in order to educate them so that they could have a good beginning in their understanding of choosing when to have children and when not to. This is done with the wisdom that a good beginning when well nurtured will bring about a good end.
This study will give us an overview of the perception or knowledge, the usage or practice of contraception among these adolescent which will again enable us to educate them on what good practice of family or reproductive health should be. This will translate into a better moral upbringing of the society around us.
This study will be significant to the academic community as it will contribute to the existing literature.
SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study will examine if students of college of education understand the use of contraceptive. The study will also find out if student of college of education practice the use of contraceptive. The study will further evaluate effect of understanding and practicing the use of contraceptive among students of college of education. Lastly, the study will proffer ways of increasing the understanding and practice of contraception use among students of college of education. Hence this study will be delimited to college of education Ikere Ekiti, Ekiti State.
LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
Like in every human endeavour, the researchers encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire, and interview), which is why the researcher resorted to a moderate choice of sample size. More so, the researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
Practice: the actual application or use of an idea, belief, or method, as opposed to theories relating to it.
Understanding: the ability to understand something; comprehension.
Contraceptive: a method or device) serving to prevent pregnancy