Background to the Study
Education enables us to grow each aspect of our life in society, as well as to use and optimize our potentials and talents in order to effectively contribute to the development of settings (Haruna&Onyebu, 2011). Education is often recognized as the cornerstone to civilisation and progress. Western education was introduced after colonialism and Christianity, and it was a typical approach to attract people. After people were drawn, it became essential to educate them, which led to the founding of schools in Nigeria, the earliest of which was The Christian Missionary School (CMS), which was built in the Bariga district of Lagos State in 1859. In rural Nigeria, education is hampered by a lack of infrastructure, such as power, a bad road network, a lack of drinkable water, a lack of health care facilities, a lack of security, inadequate teaching personnel, and occasionally non-payment of academic staff (Obanya Ahmed, 1999). The great majority of Nigeria’s population lives in rural areas, making the country primarily a rural civilization. In general, the government neglects and overlooks rural regions in Nigeria when it comes to development, from social amenities to educational development. Despite the fact that rural Nigerians are often overlooked when it comes to government development projects, the country’s wealth is drawn from rural communities all around the country. The country’s crude oil, limestone, and coal, among other resources, are heavily concentrated in rural regions( (Lawal Mandira, 2000). The lack of development in Nigeria’s rural regions has been connected to the country’s underdevelopment. The neglect of rural regions is positively correlated with a lack of development. As a result of the government’s neglect of rural regions, people are forced to migrate from rural to urban areas, which has negative implications such as overcrowding and overpopulation of urban areas, a rise in crime, unemployment, and other issues. Since missionaries and the colonial administration controlled these schools until successfully transferring them over to the government after independence in 1960, schools in rural regions were well staffed, and instructors were doing a good job of teaching (Kazeem Muraina, 1999). Those rural are villages or settlements with a tiny population, substandard housing or lodging, unpaved roads, and a low degree of commercial activity. People’s primary vocation is agriculture, and they lack social amenities such as health care, portable water, proper security, power, and a strong road network. Teachers relocated to rural regions began to oppose their posting in favor of metropolitan centers, which contain the essential facilities not present in rural areas, due to the prevalence of the aforementioned qualities in such locations (Mbanefoh Abigail,1982). As a result of these factors, there has been a significant increase in the number of instructors available to educate the less fortunate kids in rural schools. The state government now has no choice except to forcibly relocate or deploy teachers from urban to rural regions. This approach failed because the majority of the affected teachers always find a way to stay in metropolitan areas, where all of their basic and social requirements are addressed.
Statement of the Problem
Rural regions in Nigeria are plagued by a slew of underdevelopment issues, including inadequate basic health care, poor road networks, portable drinking water, high illiteracy, and a high incidence of severe poverty, to name a few (Haruna&Onyebu, 2011). These developmental issues are thought to be obstacles to Nigerian children in rural regions receiving an education. It is obvious that long-term national growth is closely linked to the degree of development and education provided to rural children; thus, the problem of education opportunities in Nigeria’s rural regions must be taken more seriously. The problem of extreme poverty and illiteracy might be argued to be a barrier to individuals in rural regions participating in education (Mbanefoh ,1982).
Education is to a nation what the intellect is to the body, and hence universal education is critical for the country’s progress and development. Because the majority of the population still lives in rural regions, education, which is considered the backbone of any serious nation’s growth, should be undergoing significant development in rural areas. As a result, it is critical for Nigeria as a growing country not to treat education lightly. This study however examines the the demeanor of teachers posted to teach in rural areas in Nigeria.
Objectives of the Study
The general objective of the study examines the demeanor of teachers posted to teach in rural areas in Nigeria and the specific objective are:
i. To examine the factors responsible for the transfer of a teacher from urban to rural area.
ii. To evaluate the effect of posting teachers from urban to rural areas on the academic performance of students.
iii. To determine challenges of teachers posted from the urban to the rural area.
iv. To suggest ways teachers can be encouraged to accept posting from urban to rural areas.
These are some of the questions the study is designed to answer:
i. What are the factors responsible for the transfer of a teacher from urban to rural area?
ii. What are the effect of posting teachers from urban to rural areas on the academic performance of students?
iii. What are challenges of teachers posted from the urban to the rural area?
iv. What are the ways teachers can be encouraged to accept posting from urban to rural areas?
Significance of the Study
The finding of this study will be beneficial to the teachers to change their attitude towards teaching in the rural schools. It is also significant to the ministry of education in identifying the causes of teachers been transferred to the rural areas. It will also help the government to know the reason why teachers have negative attitude towards teaching in the rural schools and find a lasting solution to it. Many researchers, rural communities and the general public will also benefit from the study.
The study will be significant to the academic community as it will contribute to the existing literature.
Scope of the Study
This study will examine the factors responsible for the transfer of a teacher from urban to rural area. The study will evaluate the effect of posting teachers from urban to rural areas on the academic performance of students. The study will further determine challenges of teachers posted from the urban to the rural area. Lastly, the study will suggest ways teachers can be encouraged to accept posting from urban to rural areas. Hence this study is delimited to Efon local government area.
Limitation of the study
The researcher was faced with the challenges of finance and access to remote areas in the Local Government. There was no fund to print as many as possible questionnaires for this study. Furthermore, time factor pose another constraint because the researcher have to shuttle between writing of the research and engaging in other academic work which made it uneasy for the researcher.
Definitions of Terms
Demeanor : this refers to the outward behaviour or bearing.
Rural areas: these are villages or communities characterized by the smallness of their population, poor accommodation or housing existence of untarred roads, low level of commercial availability of potable water and electricity, inadequate transportation and communication system.
Teachers: persons who help others to acquire knowledge, competences or values. Informally the role of teacher may be taken on by anyone.
Teaching: the process of attending to people’s needs experiences and feelings, and making specific interventions to help them learn particular things.
Urban areas: these are towns or cities that have the opposite characteristics of the rural areas.