BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Teachers’ supervision is a continuous activity that tries to improve teaching by providing them with the services they need. Improving education is a complicated process in which a variety of variables must work together. The teachers are at the heart of this process of growth and transformation. Their acceptance of instructional supervision, as well as their engagement with instructional supervisors, serve as the trigger for supervisory effectiveness in every setting. In terms of the consequences of the supervision process, how instructors perceive and think about the supervision that they are undertaking is quite crucial to consider. The term “supervision” derives from the Latin word “super video,” which means “to supervise” or “to watch over” (Adenaike and Adebanjo, 2000). Consequently, “supervision can be considered a method of providing advice, guiding, reviving, encouraging, stimulating, improving, and overseeing specific groups in the hopes of persuading people to refrain from following incorrect procedures when performing certain functions on their jobs while at the same time attempting to emphasize the importance of good human relations in an organization” (Akilaiya, 2001:251).
Traditionally, supervision has been defined as the enhancement of the teaching and learning process for the ultimate benefit of the learner, who is viewed as the central figure in the educational process. A similar vein, supervision is fundamentally a leadership role, a kind of superior subordinate interaction in which a leader or a military commander direct and monitor subordinate performance in order to increase the effectiveness of those under his or her supervision. Effective and efficient school activities need the use of supervision so that educators may give their all in their numerous duty postings while also making an extraordinary contribution to the development of learners who will be able to compete worldwide with their counterparts (Oluwafemi, 2005).
The development of educational excellence has long been seen as a significant aim for most countries across the globe. This is due to the fact that education has been identified as the key by which any country may permanently lock the door on poverty and ignorance while simultaneously opening the door on prosperity in terms of economic growth, social development, and civilisation. Since education is seen as a tool for change in addition to being an element of development, instructors may be thought of as the operators of the instrument, while students can be thought of as the raw materials from which the changes are realized over a period of time. However, since they are the primary characters on the stage, both the teacher’s and students’ contributions are very valuable and vital to the educational system. Extraneous variables can interfere with the plans and patterns of operation within the school, as well as with the teacher’s personality and attitude toward his or her work. These variables can have either positive or negative effects on the school system and its end results, depending on how they are handled individually or collectively.
The process of supervision is complicated, and it permeates every aspect of the educational system’s organizational structure. There seems to be little or no area of activity inside the school where the need for monitoring would not emerge, however the degree of supervision may vary from one area of operation to the next. Teachers have been accused of split loyalties, a nonchalant attitude, and indiscipline among pupils. It has also been established that there is a separation between teachers and students. There is a continual comparison between the past and the present, which is particularly true when comparing the actions of government or volunteer organizations, as well as school inspectors, in the past and in the present. Parents often express dissatisfaction with their children’s or ward’s incapacity to communicate successfully in languages other than their mother tongue. As a result, they believe that the school system is rapidly losing its glamour and focus, which is having an indirect impact on the achievement of the nation’s educational objectives. These concerns must therefore critically examine the critical areas of school administration that require supervision, namely the instructional and discipline areas. In these areas, both the content method and delivery mode, as well as the personalities of both students and teachers, must be evaluated to ensure that they are appropriate for the school system (Ajibade, 1993). In a teaching and learning environment, the students serve as the raw materials to be changed. Persons responsible for converting a kid in school are those who have been selected as the most suitable academically competent individuals to be part in this channel of transformation. In addition, highly skilled masters are promoted to the position of head of department in order to coordinate the efforts of the instructors participating in the instruction of their many specific disciplines.
Assuring appropriate function and mutual interaction of both human and non-human resources engaged in the processing of children is essential to ensuring that all authorized school staff work together in unison is essential to ensuring effective school supervision. The negative effects of supervision may result in a situation in which the supervisor is no longer objective but rather subjective, and this subjective supervision may result in a situation in which both the principal and the teachers put forth their best efforts in order to satisfy the supervisor, only to withdraw their efforts at the conclusion of the supervision period. A type of eye service performance is created in the school as a result. In order to face the challenges offered by a quickly changing school curriculum, it is necessary to conduct regular and comprehensive inspections of secondary schools. Also prevented is the indoctrination into the minds of students of poor curriculum that if allowed to be taught will promote “half naked” school leavers and instead of graduating as productive students, they will graduate as liabilities to themselves in particular and to society in general, thus defeating the aims and purposes of educational institutions and institutions of learning. The question of how to get the most out of the school system in the face of decreased input has been a key one for the educational system. The question of how to maximize the productivity of both the student and the instructor has also been a subject of concern both inside and outside of the educational system. For the most part, how to make the educational system more responsive to the needs of the society, both individually and collectively, has been a significant source of worry for all members of the public.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The research was prompted by recent observations of unsatisfactory teaching performance among secondary school instructors in institutions where teachers are free to do anything they want. It is thought that the academic performance of any student may serve as an indicator of the efficacy of the instructors in their classrooms (Ajibade, 1993). The primary goal of this research is to determine the impact of principals’ supervisory role on the efficacy of teachers’ classroom instruction. What is the effectiveness of the Ministry of Education’s supervision function in the secondary school system? And how the instructors at all of these chosen secondary schools are carrying out their responsibilities.
OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The broad objective of the study is examine the impact of strict supervision on teachers’ effectiveness in some selected secondary schools in Adamawa state. Specifically, the study will be guided under the following:
i. To examine the reason for strict supervision of teachers in Adamawa state.
ii. To find out the impact of strict supervision on the effectiveness of teachers in Adamawa State.
iii. To evaluate the impact of appraisal on teachers’ job performance in Adamawa State.
iv. To investigate if checking of professional documents affects teachers effectiveness.
The following questions have been prepared for the study:
i. What are the reason for strict supervision of teachers in Adamawa state?
ii. What are the impact of strict supervision on the effectiveness of teachers in Adamawa State?
iii. What are the impact of appraisal on teachers’ job performance in Adamawa State?
iv. Does checking of professional documents affects teachers effectiveness?
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study would provide useful information to the government, educational agencies and school administrators. The finding would further reveal the important and the effects of supervision on teachers’ effectiveness as secondary school education in Nigeria is growing rapidly in number and population in recent times. The increase in number and population of secondary schools has led to an increase in demand for qualified and unqualified teachers in the schools.
Also , the study will be significant to the ministry of education as it will help in revitalizing the issue of falling standard of education as a result of poor administration while it demands proper organization and planning. Thereby making the society to benefit from the study and also help in making effective use of human and materials resource that are available to the schools in the society.
Finally, the study will be significant to the academic community as it will contribute to the existing literature.
SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The will examine the reason for strict supervision of teachers in Adamawa state. The study will also find out the impact of strict supervision on the effectiveness of teachers in Adamawa State. The study will further evaluate the impact of appraisal on teachers’ job performance in Adamawa State. Lastly, the study will investigate if checking of professional documents affects teachers effectiveness. Hence the study will be delimited to Adamawa State
LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
This study is limited to some secondary schools teachers and principals in Adamawa State. In a research of this nature, one must anticipate some difficulties to arise particularly in the process of gathering necessary data for the study. Some of these problems include:-
Lack of recognition by teacher about the importance of this research study.
Some of them might think of implicating themselves by filling the questionnaires.
Collection of the questionnaire might also pose problem because the teachers might misplace them and another set might need to be distributed.
Time and financial constrained also contributed to the lack of adequate and comprehensive research on the topic of the study.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
Supervision: This is to see that the right thing is done through directing and proper monitoring. This means acting as a check and balances to some specially assigned duties.
Teacher: Someone who makes other people learn what they may not have known. A teacher is someone whose job is to impact knowledge to others.
Effectiveness: Result produced due to an action taken on the long run, which is interesting enough to be noticed.