Background To The Study
Functional education places a premium on utilitarian goals, such as preparing students for productive lives in society. Secondary education requires energetic and devoted teachers who are willing to continue in the teaching profession in today’s knowledge-driven world as a result of the emergence of new technologies that have impacted many parts of human endeavors, including education. This is because teachers are the bedrock of every country’s educational system and are critical to schools’ performance (Rockia, 2017). As a result, teacher retention is critical for the secondary educational system to remain on track.
Employee retention refers to the efforts or policies used by a company to inspire its workers, to encourage workers to remain with the business, and to prevent competent and valued employees from leaving. It entails adopting proper efforts to persuade employees to stay with a company for the largest amount of time possible (Hang, Hao, Kumar, Ramendran & Kadirsan, 2012). This implies that although recruiting teachers to teach in secondary schools is critical, retention is just as critical. Teacher retention seeks to meet teachers’ requirements in order to increase work satisfaction and decrease turnover. If teachers are underpaid and do not get frequent advancements, this is predicted to have a negative effect on their retention in the teaching profession. A well-designed compensation system for teachers would drive them to do a better job, which would increase their retention. Thus, teacher retention is contingent upon the “motivational qualities they appreciate” (Ahiauzu, Dieprey & Onwuchekwa, 2011 p.29).
According to Palermo (2002), a hostile work environment, a high workload, and a lack of promotion opportunities for teachers all contribute to teacher turnover. Thus, sustaining a desired teaching force in the secondary school system is critical since it fosters improved services and contributes to the school system’s high productivity and continuity. In recent years, the attrition rate of teachers in Rivers State has increased. Many teachers in Rivers State secondary schools resign due to dissatisfaction, low motivation, low pay, and delayed career teaching as shown by promotion delays. Secondary school teachers are underpaid and have sporadic promotions, which impacts their retention in the teaching profession. This was shown by the State Secondary Education Board’s (SSEB, 2014) report that the state lost a number of teachers to attrition in 2009. It grew in 2010. This indicates that not everything is right with the state’s secondary school system in terms of teacher retention. Personnel management techniques may have an effect on the length of time teachers remain in secondary schools.
According to Akpan (2011), personnel management is a subset of organizational management that is concerned with fostering harmonious relationships between employees and between employees and employers inside an organization. He continued by stating that personnel management includes efforts aimed at acquiring and retaining a competent and harmonious staff in which each employee is given with possibilities for personal growth and is effectively used in the organization’s best interests. This indicates that the way personnel (teachers) are handled in secondary schools has a significant impact on their commitment to the organization and their decision to remain or leave. Numerous personnel management techniques may have an effect on teachers’ choices to stay or leave the teaching profession. These approaches include teacher training and protecting teachers’ job security. According to Bell (2004), training and job security are two critical predictors of employee retention. In view of the above, this research tries to determine the effect of personnel management on teacher retention in Rivers State public secondary schools.
Statement of the Problem
Many teachers and other stakeholders in education demand effective and result-oriented personnel management to ensure teachers’ retention in secondary schools. Regrettably, teacher turnover continues to rise year after year. A significant proportion of teachers quit the teaching in quest of white collar profession outside of the secondary education sub-sector (Omeke, 2010). According to some stakeholders, this is a result of inadequate personnel management methods. There is an insufficient ongoing training program for teachers, and the outcomes of performance appraisals are not appropriately used for teacher advancement and further training, which would have acted as a bond to retain teachers in the school system (Jessie, 2013). The remuneration structure is inefficiently administered, notably the incentives, which are insufficient to keep teachers on the job. According to Jota(2015), teachers’ advancement, salary payment, and other benefits are delayed unnecessarily. In certain secondary schools, decision-making is poorly managed, and teachers are excluded from the process. The relationships between administrators and teachers at the school seem to be unstable, sometimes leading in confrontation (Onyeka, 2014). Similarly, the state’s health programs for teachers are ineffectively handled and managed. Teachers’ job security is jeopardized as a result of these issues (Miliky, 2013). These issues cause teachers to lose interest in their teaching jobs and contribute to a lack of proper and timely advancement and a strained connection between employee and employer. Despite government attempts to retain teachers, the issue of teacher retention continues.
Objective Of The Study
The basic aim of this study is to critically examine the impact of personnel management and teachers’ retention in public secondary schools in rivers state. Hence, the study will be channeled to the following specific objectives;
1. Ascertain the extent to which teachers are effectively managed in public secondary schools in Rivers State.
2. Ascertain whether any relationship exit between effective personnel management and teachers retention in public secondary schools in Rivers State.
3. Identify the effect of poor personnel management on the job performance of teachers in public secondary schools in Rivers State.
The study will be guided by the following questions;
1. What is the extent to which teachers are effectively managed in public secondary schools in Rivers State?
2. Does any relationship exit between effective personnel management and teachers retention in public secondary schools in Rivers State?
3. What are the effect of poor personnel management on the job performance of teachers in public secondary schools in Rivers State.
Significance Of Study
The study will be of immense benefit to the entire educational system as it will examine the relationship between personnel management and teachers retention in secondary schools. Therefore, the outcome of this study will bring to the notice of relevant school authorities on the need to adjust their leadership style so as to ensure that the teachers are effectively managed and avoid the consequences of teachers attrition.
Additionally, subsequent researchers will use it as literature review. This means that, other students who may decide to conduct studies in this area will have the opportunity to use this study as available literature that can be subjected to critical review. Invariably, the result of the study contributes immensely to the body of academic knowledge with regards to the impact of personnel management and teachers’ retention in public secondary schools in rivers state.
Scope Of The Study
This study is structured to generally examine the impact of personnel management and teachers’ retention in public secondary schools in rivers state. However, the study will further ascertain the extent to which teachers are effectively managed in public secondary schools in Rivers State, ascertain whether any relationship exit between effective personnel management and teachers retention in public secondary schools in Rivers State, and identify the effect of poor personnel management on the job performance of teachers in public secondary schools in Rivers State.
Thus, the study will be delimited to some selected secondary schools in Rivers State.
Limitation Of The Study
In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, and the attitude of the respondents. However, the researcher were able to manage these just to ensure the success of this study.
Definition Of Terms
Personnel Management: is a traditional approach of managing people in the organization. Human resource management is a modern approach of managing people and their strengths in the organization.
Teachers attrition: This is the departure of teachers from the schools for any reason (voluntary or involuntary).
Teachers Retention: This is the ability of a school to prevent teachers turnover, or the number of people who leave their job in a certain period, either voluntarily or involuntarily.