Background of the study
In Africa, good governance and stability have been quite elusive and attaining sustainable development has remained a mirage. This is because the governments’ policies have not focused on the people, as defined by the concept of sustainable development. The emerging concept of sustainable development is prioritized in the programs of most businesses, governments, nongovernmental organizations, and educational institutions around the world regarding good governance. Sustainable development encompasses development-focused activities that strive to enhance and promote the economic and socio-political welfare of the populace within an ecologically sustainable framework at all social organization levels. Sustainable development satisfies the needs of the present generation without affecting future generations’ ability to meet their needs. Sustainable development is based on people, and as such, the government, which mirrors the people, should embody sustainability. However, for the government to be successful in the implementation of sustainable development policies, it must demonstrate good governance according to the people’s standards. For the government to be successful in the implementation of sustainable development policies, it must demonstrate good governance by the people’s standards.
Since the 1980s, governance has been a debatable topic and scholars, international organizations, and governments have assumed different interpretations of good governance. The World Governance Indicators defined good governance as the practice and foundations by which power is exercised within a given country; the procedure by which governments are selected, held accountable, monitored, and changed; the capacity by which governments manage resources efficiently and formulate, implement, and enforce sound policies and regulations; and the respect for the institutions that govern economic and social interactions. Hence, suffice to say that whenever government performance is poor, resources are wasted; services remain undelivered; and citizens, particularly the poor, are denied legal, economic, and social protection. To this end, good governance and stability are an imperative for sustainable development and the reduction of poverty.
Statement of the problem
In recent years, Ghana, among other African countries, has experienced a dramatic transformation. There have been questions about when and how the populace can stand against injustice, oppression, and abuse without resorting to violence. Issues of poor governance and corruption in Africa have also remained central in conversations about African countries. Currently, African governments, institutions, donors, professionals, and aid workers acknowledge the negative effect of corruption and poor governance on sustainable development, particularly in states that are emerging from conflict. Poor governance can keep African nations in cycles of violence due to lapses in governance institutions that allow the flow of funding to criminal networks and the armed forces that terrorize their people and hinder development. Experiences from various African countries indicate that poor governance and corruption play a significant role in driving fragile nations into failure and instability. An example of such is South Sudan, Africa’s newest independent nation, and what is left of it is political unrest and ethnic clashes. Good governance embodies the ability of a nation to encourage public participation and publicly reveal abuses of office and corrupt leaders even when it hurts their political futures. Free and fair elections also reinforce the credence of holding leaders accountable, and in the event of misuse of office, the citizens vote them out during the following election cycle. However, in the African setting, this remains the perfect scenario but is still quite impractical because most leaders are entangled in corrupt dealings and poor governance, yet they insist on maintaining leadership. Furthermore, the lack of good functional governance has created a situation wherein many states in the subregion of Ghana are vulnerable to maladministration, unbridled corruption, inequalities, and regime protection by politicians and their cronies to the detriment of societal good. As injustices are afflicted on the population with impunity, socioeconomic deprivation and poverty lead to despondency and mistrust of the government, thereby instigating revolutionary tendencies among the citizenry. There is a gap in literature on the impact of good governance and stability on sustainable development in Ghana, thus giving rise to the reason why the researchers delved into this study.
Objective of the study
The main focus of this study is to examine the impact of good governance on sustainable development in Ghana. Specifically the study seek:
1. To describe the indicators of good governance and sustainable development.
2. To investigate factors that triggers instability in the polity.
3. To examine how poor governance and violence impact sustainable development using Ghana’s case scenario.
HO1: The are no evidence of poor governance and political instability in Ghana
HO2: Good governance and stability has no significant effect in Sustanable development in Ghana
Significance of the study
Findings from the study will be relevant to the government and stakeholders in Ghana. It will enlighten them about the need to adopt an inclusive democratization process in order to foster good governance and sustainable development. It will highlight the need for the incumbent to engage in continued dialogue with the government and this critical mass of the population is the needed driver to push for a regime of good governance. This dialogue will create a unity of purpose to confront manifest and potential obstacles to good governance (obstacles such as official corruption, widespread insecurity, youth restiveness, social inequality, gender discrimination). The study will empirically add to the body of knowledge and serve as reference material for other academia in related fields of study.
Scope of the study
The scope of this study borders on on the impact of good governance and stability on sustainable development. The study is however delimited to Ghana with particular interest in Ghana’s rule of law; the structures of governance; Ghana’s political stability; and Ghana’s initiatives on sustainable development, policies, and practices. I studied how Ghana, being one of the critical leading democratic nations in the subregion, has approached the concept of sustainability differently.
Limitation of the study
During the course of this research, the following factors are proposed to be a limitation.
Financial constraints: Financial constraints tend to impede the researcher’s efficiency in locating relevant materials, literature, or information, as well as in data collection (internet, questionnaire, and interview).
Time constraint– The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research is reduced. However the researcher will give in their best to make this research a success.
Research methodology is the specific procedures or techniques used to identify, select, process, and analyze information about a topic. To realize the objectives of this study, the paper adopts a methodology that is both descriptive and analytical. The study appeared exploratory; therefore, a qualitative, holistic case study was appropriate.The method would provide me with an in-depth understanding of how Ghana’s relatively good governance and stability impacts on sustainable development.Information was sourced from secondary data collated from journals, articles, library materials and internet sources which are related to the study.
Definition of terms
Good governance: good governance is a way of measuring how public institutions conduct public affairs and manage public resources in a preferred way. Governance is “the process of decision-making and the process by which decisions are implemented”. Good governance means that processes and institutions produce results that meet the needs of society while making the best use of resources at their disposal. Accountability is a key requirement of good governance.
Democracy: A democracy means rule by the people. The name is used for different forms of government, where the people can take part in the decisions that affect the way their community is run. It is a government in which the supreme power is vested in the people and exercised by them directly or indirectly through a system of representation usually involving periodically held free elections.
Political Stability: stable political system is one that survives through crises without internal warfare. The key to achieve this success is the ability of a government to control social development, to manage and prevent change, and to bring under governmental direction all the forces that may result in innovations that are threatening to the system.
Sustainable Development: Sustainable development is the idea that human societies must live and meet their needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Specifically, sustainable development is a way of organizing society so that it can exist in the long term.