Education Project Topics

An Evaluation on the Challenges and Prospects of Teaching and Learning Business Studies in Secondary Schools





According to the National Policy on Education in Nigeria, Business Studies should be included on the list of social science subjects that are required to be taught in all secondary schools in the country after elementary education. The field of Business Studies encompasses a variety of sub-disciplines and sub-fields. In other words, it is a combination of many other courses; more specifically, it is a combination of office practice, commerce, shorthand, typewriting, and bookkeeping (Ekpenyong, 2019). It is provided as an integrated subject at the Junior Secondary level. At the Senior Secondary level, on the other hand, the topics are segmented into shorthand, typewriting, economics, bookkeeping, and accounting in order to provide students with a wider variety of job opportunities. The introduction of Business Studies into the national curriculum, as reflected in the national policy on Education (Federal Republic of Nigeria, 1981) and the national curriculum for Junior Secondary School (J.S.S) and senior Secondary School (S.S.S) (Federal Ministry of Education, 2017), has created an enormous challenge for the trainers of Business Studies teachers, particularly at the N.C.E and the undergraduate levels. This challenge has been brought about as a result of the introduction of Business Studies into the national This challenge has arisen in the area of designing programs that would meet the following requirement, which is reflected in the provocation (J.S.S) and vocational (S.S.S) curricular in terms of: ‘Knowledge integration,’ ‘Learning objectives,’ ‘Spiral and Concentric Sequencing of Course Content,’ and ‘Modular or Specific Competency Requirements.

Particularly at the J.S.S. level, the behaviorally oriented curricular patterns that developed from the major aspects of the Business Studies curriculum that were described above have been emphasized here. Once again, the arrangement of the material covered in the class has largely been determined by the units of teaching that are chosen. This has been accomplished via the use of spiral sequencing (for theory-based subjects, such as commerce) and concentric sequencing (for skill-based subjects, such as typewriting) of the material that makes up each topic. On the other hand, efforts to meet course objectives gave rise to the definition of performance objectives, which are intended to foster concepts, inquiry, learning, and utilization relatedness, as explained by (Ekpenyong, 2019). These objectives were defined as a result of efforts to meet course objectives.

The National Board for Technical Education (NBTE) is responsible for initiating the first significant effort to train N.C.E teachers who would be able to meet the curriculum structure and course objectives of J.S.S. and S.S.S. Business Studies programs. This endeavor was undertaken by the National Board for Technical Education (1987). The Business Studies curriculum that was offered by the National Business & Technical Educators (NBTE) had numerous components that were designed to develop teachers who were suitably prepared to teach Business Studies at the secondary school level. A common core topic that each student was required to study for the first two years of the program was determined. Courses were outlined in the form of modules, and the performance goals for each module were made crystal apparent. The third and final year was set aside for students to concentrate on either accounting or secretarial work as their area of concentration. However, when the National Commission for Colleges of Education (NCCE) took over the N.C.E curriculum from the NBTE in 1990, it made the decision to eliminate the majority of the aspects of the N.C.E curriculum that had been designed by the latter. For example, the modular framework, the course standards, and the declaration of goals were all scrapped (Ekpenyong, 2019). The fact that the National Commission for Colleges of Education curriculum for instructors of Business Education does not include course outlines in the context of the syllabus is consequently something that might be seen as a significant flaw in the curriculum. This is not likely to be of much use to experienced students or instructors who are looking for direction in establishing their class goals in an acceptable manner. The National Commission for College of Education should be commended for its efforts in trying to bring about the significant innovations in the business teachers education curriculum. This is especially true of its bid to introduce new courses such as entrepreneurship and information technology in its revised curriculum, which was scheduled to begin in the 2002/2003 session. Even though the aforementioned flaws still exist, the National Commission for College of Education should be commended for its efforts.

There has never been any question about the significance of facilities to the overarching achievement of any educational endeavor. It is for this reason that Buremoh (2018), Olutola (2019), and Morphet and Roe (2017) stress the need of the availability of sufficient facilities for training. The availability of functional training facilities and equipment, such as contemporary office machines in the form of computers, word processors and electronic typewriters, and office copiers, is absolutely necessary for business teachers education, just as it is for other types of technical programs. In addition, there is a pressing requirement for sufficient working and storage space. Because of this, when developing the curriculum for teacher education, the design teams for various subject areas such as accounting, commerce, word processing, and office management produced a list of the minimum instructional equipment that, in order to provide quality instruction, would be required.


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Although Oyedeji (2019) was unable to find a significant difference between the performance of Business Studies students who had sufficient Instructional equipment and those who did not, experience in the field of Business Education Teaching indicates that a lack of equipment can seriously hinder student progress, particularly in skill subject areas. At the Junior and Senior Secondary School levels of education, an inadequate worker supply is a key problem that works against the successful and effective teaching of Business Studies. This is something that has been recognized as a major factor for a significant amount of time. The pitiful state of affairs regarding the inadequate supply of business professors may be explained in terms of the structural imbalance that exists within the educational system (Aina, 2020). These issues are evident in the consistently dismal performance of the Business Studies department.


As with the instruction of any other subject, difficulties in teaching business studies have been linked to a dearth of instructional resources and, in certain cases, to the fact that some instructors lack the necessary credentials to instruct the topic. However, in some schools there are trained instructors, but they do not have access to the appropriate learning materials. Without these resources, the teachers’ efforts are fruitless. Additionally, there are occasions when the student or learner is really not interested in the topic, and as a result, their performance is not up to standard (Aina, 2020). It is important to notice that the way in which the instructor chooses to present the material may cause the material to be boring to the students. This is due to the fact that a competent instructor who employs an ineffective technique of instruction will provide unsatisfactory results. As a result, the purpose of this research is to assess both the difficulties and the potential benefits of teaching and studying business courses in secondary schools.


The general objective of the study is to evaluate the challenges and prospects of teaching and learning  business studies in secondary schools. The specific objectives is as follows:

i.          To examine if infrastructures influences the teaching and learning of  business studies.

ii.        To find out if students interest helps in teaching and learning of business studies.

iii.      To investigate if there is a prospect in the teaching of business studies.

iv.      To investigate strategies to improve the teaching and learning of business studies.


The following research question will serve as a guide to the study.

i.          Does infrastructures influences the teaching and learning of  business studies?

ii.        Does students interest helps in teaching and learning of business studies?

iii.      Is there a prospect in the teaching of business studies?

iv.      What are the strategies to improve the teaching and learning of business studies?


This research will find out the reason for the short comings in the expectation of Business Studies educators and scholars in improving students academic performance in Business Studies.    It will point out the important qualities of teachers (qualification use of teaching and learning aids, manipulation of the teaching environment and personality in enhancing a positive attitude in students towards Business Studies). Above all, this study will broaden the knowledge of Business Studies educators on the various problems and prospects of teaching Business Studies in secondary schools.

The study will also benefit the academic community as it will contribute to the existing literature.


The study will examine if infrastructures influences the teaching and learning of  business studies. The study will also find out if students interest helps in teaching and learning of business studies. The study will further investigate if there is a prospect in the teaching of business studies. Lastly, the study will investigate strategies to improve the teaching and learning of business studies.


Like in every human endeavour, the researchers encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire, and interview), which is why the researcher resorted to a moderate choice of sample size. More so, the researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.


Business: The study of the management of individuals organizing to maintain collective productivity toward accomplishing particular creative and productive goals (usually to generate profit).

Teaching: This is simply the process of impacting knowledge, it means the process of giving instruction to somebody or causes somebody to know or be able to do something.

Challenges : It is something difficult to deal with or understand.

Prospect:   It is the possibility of something occurring or chances for success.



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