Background of the study
Migration has become a dynamic phenomena in this age of fast globalization, with a variety of reasons leading to the movement of huge numbers of people over many geographical routes. Travel and communication across vast distances have been made simpler as a result of globalization and technological innovation, and this has impacted migration trends and patterns (Castells, 1996). South-south migration flows, or movement between developing nations, are increasing at a faster rate than south-north migration flows, or migration from developing countries to developed ones. The rationale for this south-to-north migratory movement is that developed nations are tightening their immigration and border controls, making it more difficult for individuals from poor countries to easily migrate to developed ones (Lindo, 2005). According to the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UN, DESA), the total number of international migrants born in developing countries and residing in other countries in the Global South was 271.6 million at the mid-year mark of 2019, while international migrants born in the South residing in countries in the Global North accounted for 3.5 percent of the total at the same time (UN, DESA, 2019). Africa has undergone both voluntary and involuntary migrant movements throughout its history, both of which have contributed to its present demographic environment (Hope, 2008). African migration is growing more complicated and varied, with more individuals migrating to a variety of locations both inside Africa and across the globe (Flahaux and De Haas, 2016). In certain African nations, such as South Africa and Ghana, people travel in, out, and through the country at the same time. The net migration trend in Africa shows massive numbers of individuals moving, considerably above the world norm, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa (Naudé, 2010). Intra-African emigration (movement inside African nations) is about 52%, which is lower than emigration to Europe (59%) and Asia (54.7%). (UNCTAD, 2018). With a number close to 65 percent, countries in Sub-Sahara Africa have the world’s greatest intra-continental or south-south flow of people. Although movement from developing to developed nations receives a lot of attention in the migration literature, Adepoju and Van der Wiel (2010) point out that mobility within developing countries is quite common in Africa. According to Adepoju and Van der Wiel (2000), cross-border movement dominates inside Africa, especially in West Africa, where almost 90% of intra-African migration occurs within the same sub-region. This is due to the fact that in certain areas of Africa, travel is frequently prohibited by physical barriers such as tight border restrictions. Similarly, the ECOWAS Protocol on free movement of people, right of establishment, and residency, which was signed in 1979, has aided the growth of migration in West Africa. Cross-border migration, on the other hand, is a significant source of income and a coping mechanism in Africa, where causes such as declining political, socioeconomic, and environmental circumstances, instability, violent conflicts, and poverty all contribute to migration (Gibney, 2015). Internal migration, immigration, transit movement, and emigration are all common types of mobility in Ghana (Awumbila et al., 2011). Different groups of people moved into other regions seeking security, new towns, and rich grounds for farming in the 1960s, mostly inside Ghana’s borders (Awumbila et al., 2011). Meanwhile, a small number of individuals, mainly students and professionals, left the nation for the United Kingdom and other English-speaking countries (Awumbila et al., 2011). During the colonial period, migration to Ghana became widespread. Migrant laborers arrived into the nation in the nineteenth century to work in mines, cocoa plantations, and railroads, according to Peil (1974). In recent years, Ghana has seen a reversal in migration, with the number of people entering the nation (immigrants) greatly outnumbering those leaving (emigrants) (Awumbila et al., 2008). This was largely due to the ECOWAS agreement on free movement of West African nationals increasing connections among West African nations. For example, Adepoju (2003) discovered that until the 1960s, the comparatively affluent character of Ghana’s economy drew thousands of immigrants from other West African nations, especially Nigeria, Togo, and Burkina Faso. Nigerians were discovered to be Ghana’s most numerous West African immigrant nationalities. According to the Ghana Statistical Service (2010), there were about 400,000 Nigerians in Ghana in 2010. While Nigerian migration to other areas of the globe is not new, it has been shown that Nigerian migrants prefer to go to places where they can adapt quickly (Bosiakoh, 2009). As a result of their shared colonial history, socio-cultural commonalities such as language, and economic connections with Ghana, Ghana has become a favorite destination for Nigerian migrants. When they arrived in Ghana, many of them took up jobs in the country’s trade and commerce at the cost of Ghanaian residents (Peil, 1974). Furthermore, Peil (1974) claims that Nigerian migrants (especially the Yoruba and Hausa) in Ghana dominated Ghanaian marketplaces; almost 40% of female merchants in the Kumasi market were Nigerians. Nigerians took over the indigenous portion of the diamond mining industry, the waterfront shops in Winneba, and the Fadama motor-parts market in Accra, according to Skinner (1963). According to Adepoju (2003), most of the migration to Ghana prior to the 1970s was driven by economic reasons, since most of these migrants settled in rural regions and participated in farming, fishing, and trade. Nigerians have been migrating and integrating into Ghana from the year I960. In migration, the integration process is critical to a migrant’s success or failure in their destination country. Integration has become a key policy objective for resettling refugees and other migrants, as well as a topic of heated controversy. Integration is seen as a long-term process in which immigrants fully and equitably engage in all areas of their new community (Gray & Elliott 2001). Migrants are considered to have effectively integrated when they are well-received in their new communities, have built up wealth, are well-positioned to contribute to the growth of both their host and their home nations, and have gained new knowledge and skills (Anwubilam et al., 2008). On the other side, when they are opposed and rejected in many areas of the destination country, they are unable to assimilate into their new communities. The first stage in the integration process of migrants in their destination country is socioeconomic integration. Access to food, housing, health care, education, job, remittance flow, and right protection are some of the indicators of socioeconomic integration, according to Anwubilam et al. (2008). When a migrant arrives in the nation where they will be resettled, they hope to find housing and a meaningful work to help them survive while they look for more long-term possibilities. In the integration of migrants, certain nations, organizations, and international players have a role. Some nations, according to Heckmann (2008), assist immigrants in accelerating their integration, particularly in the economic and social elements of their life. Sweden, for example, assists migrants with social integration by providing internship programs and language courses for newcomers, as well as assisting them in obtaining housing swiftly. In 2007, the Treaty of Lisbon gave European organizations like the European Union (EU) the authority to offer incentives and assistance for Member States’ efforts to promote third-country citizens’ economic integration (Sigona 2005). Similarly, with the United Nations’ (UN) demand for “leaving no one behind—including migrants” as part of the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals, migrant integration has gained importance on the global agenda (UN, 2009). For example, the International Organization for Migration (IOM) has developed policies and initiatives to assist migrants in better integrating into new communities, promoting their social, economic, and cultural participation within existing legal frameworks in destination countries. Similarly, the African Union (AU) has developed legal policy tools such as the African Common Position and the Migration Policy Framework, which emphasize key aspects of national, sub-regional, and regional migration and effective integration (AU, 2018). The Migration Policy Framework, in particular, urges member states to adopt policies that safeguard and promote migrants’ human rights, including encouraging migrants’ integration into host communities to encourage mutual acceptance. Furthermore, One of the objectives of the ECOWAS Protocol on free movement, right of residence, and establishment, from a West African viewpoint, is to create policies to protect the rights of migrants in West Africa. combating exclusion and bigotry via an aggressive integration strategy for migrants from ECOWAS member states (ECOWAS, 1876). This is done in order to eliminate any barriers to migrants’ assimilation. In addition, with the support of the IOM, Ghana formally launched a National Policy on Migration and an implementation plan in 2016, which comprehensively addresses key migration issues faced by Ghanaian immigrants, such as irregular migration, labor migration, refugee issues, human trafficking, migrant smuggling, readmission, reintegration of Ghanaian migrants, and border management. These steps have been put in place to make it easier to enter Ghana.
Statement of research problem
Migration is a collection of movements that, taken together, may be characterized as an evolutionary and development-promoting process that takes place across time and space to rectify rural-urban, interurban, and interregional imbalances. However, the motivation for migration cannot be divorced from socioeconomic benefits, as shown by the large number of Nigerians who are migrating to Ghana in quest of economic opportunities. According to recent reports, Ghanaians are searching for methods to shut down Nigerian companies because they feel their economic sector has been overrun by Nigerian businesses, necessitating their departure. This is due to Nigerian migrants’ failure to completely integrate into Ghanaians’ socioeconomic activity. Nigerian migration to Ghana has grown substantially since the 1979 ratification of the ECOWAS agreement on free movement, residency, and establishment. However, as a result of the increased migration to Ghana, these migrants face certain difficulties that impede their socioeconomic integration. Foreigners’ integration into host nations is a challenge for many countries, not only Ghana. With the rising number of Nigerian migrants and asylum seekers in Ghana, the issue of resettling displaced people has reached worrisome proportions, with the host country being overburdened and often unable to deal with the influx of foreign nationals, some of whom are illegal immigrants. As a result, the emphasis of this research will be on the socioeconomic integration of Nigerian migrants in Ghana.
Objectives of the study
the primary objective of the study is as follows
1. To find out the reason why Nigerians migrate to Ghana
2. To find out the migration policies that facilitate integration of Nigerian migrants in Ghana.
3. To find out the socio-economic factors that facilitate integration of Nigerian migrants in Ghana
4. To find out how the existing Ghanaian migration policies and legal texts have contributed to the socio-economic integration of Nigerian migrants in Ghana.
The following research question have been prepared for this study
1. What are the reasons of Nigerian migration to Ghana?
2. Do you think there are migration policies that facilitate integration of Nigerian migrants in Ghana?
3. Do you think there are socio-economic factors that facilitate integration of Nigerian migrants in Ghana
4. Do you think that the existing Ghanaian migration polices have contributed to the socioeconomic integration of Nigerian migrants in Ghana?
Significance of the study
The significance of this study cannot be underestimated as:
1. This study will examine an analysis of the socio economic integration of Nigerian migrant in Ghana
2. The findings of this research work will undoubtedly provide the much needed information to government organizations, ministry of education and academia.
Scope of the study
5. This study will examine an analysis of the socio-economic integration of Nigerian migrant in Ghana. Hence the socio-economic factors that facilitate integration of Nigerian migrants in Ghana will be looked into.
Limitations of the study
This study was constrained by a number of factors which are as follows:
just like any other research, ranging from unavailability of needed accurate materials on the topic under study, inability to get data
Financial constraint , was faced by the researcher ,in getting relevant materials and in printing and collation of questionnaires
Time factor: time factor pose another constraint since having to shuttle between writing of the research and also engaging in other academic work making it uneasy for the researcher
Operational definition of terms
Analysis: detailed examination of the elements or structure of something.
Socio economic: he interaction between the social and economic habits of a group of people
Integration: the action or process of integrating.