Mass Communication Project Topics

Adoption of Billboards Advertising for the Promotion of Solid Waste Management : a Study of Effurun, Delta State

Adoption of Billboards Advertising for the Promotion of Solid Waste Management a Study of Effurun, Delta State


Adoption of Billboards Advertising for the Promotion of Solid Waste Management a Study of Effurun, Delta State


Content Structure of Adoption of Billboards Advertising for the Promotion of Solid Waste Management : a Study of Effurun, Delta State

  • The abstract contains the research problem, the objectives, methodology, results, and recommendations
  • Chapter one of this thesis or project materials contains the background to the study, the research problem, the research questions, research objectives, research hypotheses, significance of the study, the scope of the study, organization of the study, and the operational definition of terms.
  • Chapter two contains relevant literature on the issue under investigation. The chapter is divided into five parts which are the conceptual review, theoretical review, empirical review, conceptual framework, and gaps in research
  • Chapter three contains the research design, study area, population, sample size and sampling technique, validity, reliability, source of data, operationalization of variables, research models, and data analysis method
  • Chapter four contains the data analysis and the discussion of the findings
  • Chapter five contains the summary of findings, conclusions, recommendations, contributions to knowledge, and recommendations for further studies.
  • References: The references are in APA
  • Questionnaire


Abstract of Adoption of Billboards Advertising for the Promotion of Solid Waste Management : a Study of Effurun, Delta State

 One of the environmental challenges facing developing countries like Nigeria is unhealthy disposal of solid waste. Poor attitude towards waste management has been shown to be the major cause of solid waste problems in Nigerian cities. There are many ways to enlighten people on how to manage waste. Billboard advertising is one of many strategies. Billboard is one of the most effective out-door advertising that has the features to catch one eyes and attention because of the striking colours, magnificent images and giant sizes. The study examined adoption of Billboards advertising for the promotion of solid waste management. A study of Effurun, Uvwie Local Government Area of Delta State. The population of this study was consists of 188,728 persons in Effurun town in Uvwie Local Government Area of Delta State. The sample size was three hundred and eighty four, 384 persons. The instrument for the data collection was the questionnaire. The total numbers of items in the questionnaire were twenty (20). The descriptive statistic of tabulated frequency count, percentage and mean, were used to analyze the collected data. Findings show that billboards are strong ways of conveying advertising message because of the images seen. The study also shows that the ministry of environment in the state has not made significant contribution through Billboards campaigns. Advertisements on Billboards are too much on our streets, they deface the beauty of the environment. Billboards are a better strategy for campaigns on solid waste management. There are inadequate billboards advertisements on solid waste. The study showed that Billboards are effective enlightenment campaigns strategy for waste management but Billboards advertising have not been adopted in these states as strategy for enlightenment campaigns on solid waste management. Poor enlightenment campaigns have been shown to be one of the causes of poor attitude to waste management. However, there is need for consistent enlightenment campaigns on solid waste management through Billboards advertising.



Chapter One of Adoption of Billboards Advertising for the Promotion of Solid Waste Management : a Study of Effurun, Delta State


Background to the Study

Billboards are any large outdoor printed (projected) signs. Artists’ Billboards have been a key medium or vehicle to explore and express the ideas and strategies behind the most important art movements over the last fifty years. Billboards advertising are a vital means of communication. Effective Billboards advertising have a clear and concise message and attractive illustrations and visual appearance. They are clutter free and easy to read (Jacqueline, 2009). The distinctive features of Billboards advertising, is that of 24-hour presence. Billboards advertisements are found in high traffic areas such as alongside busy roads. Typically showing large, ostensibly witty slogans, and distinctive visuals, Billboards are highly visible in the top designated market areas. Bulletins are the largest, most influential standardize-Billboards, located primarily on major highways, expressways; they command high density consumer exposure (mostly to vehicular traffic). Posters are the other common form of billboard advertising, located chiefly in commercial and industrial areas on primary and secondary arterial roads. Posters are a smaller format than bulletins and are viewed principally by residents and commuter traffic, with some pedestrian exposure. Billboards Advertising have some effective principles such as, simple background which brings Out the advertisement more clearly, simple messages (single message communicated) and creativity (use of clever phrases and illustrations) (Jacqueline, 2009).

Of all the media of advertising, outdoor or out of home as in the case of billboard, seems to attract much attention. This is because; it is one of many ways of securing the attention of the public, (Olagbere, 1997). It is also the most visible medium as structures carrying advertising messages can be seen everywhere that cuts across literary barriers which makes it easily understood by both the literate and illiterate, and it is free as viewers do not have to pay to gain access to it (Osang, 2012). Billboard advertisements or hoardings are designed to catch a person’s attention and create a memorable impression very quickly, leaving the reader thinking about the advertisement after they have driven past it (Akpoghiran, 2017). They are usually only a few words, in large print, and a humorous or arresting image in brilliant colour. Olagbere, (1997), argued that of all forms of outdoor advertising, Billboards have in common the purpose of catching the eyes of passerby and impressing on them, a concise but powerful sales message at the time they are passing by. This implies that, as Benson-Eluwa [2005] puts it, billboard advertising, gives extra attention, as a result of its size and location or site, colour advantages, lighted signs and mass appeal. This means that Billboards are the most public means of advertising.

Billboards advertising is a valuable medium of communication to drivers and pedestrians, because the posters stand alone and makes its presence felt in a different way from other form of advertising (Apkoghiran, 2017). In Nigeria, Billboards advertising, are used to convey different messages on health/pharmaceuticals, beverage and food, beauty and cosmetics, soft drinks, beers and other alcoholic drinks, telecommunication services and all sorts of information including, political advertising. However, one area that may not have appeared on Billboards advertising is solid waste management. In Nigeria, the outdoor Advertising Association of Nigeria (OAAN) is the body that is responsible for regulating and controlling Outdoor Advertising. OAAN has been accused of multiple and uncertain in regulation of Outdoor advertising thereby creating chaotic situation and defacing the beauty and aesthesis of the environment.

Idiagbe, (2012), Chijide,(2012), and Ladipo,(2012), studies have shown that Billboards as outdoor advertising, contributes to economic growth. Chijide, (2012) argued that Billboards as outdoor advertising contributes to economic growth. Chijide, (2012) argued that Billboards has become a key positive influence in Nigeria marketing environment. To him, billboard advertising is the second biggest contributor to objective driven media engagement worldwide, and it is the most enduring and effective among advertising media options. Invariably, it is the vehicle advertising that is active at all times, for the reason that is ubiquitous and it reinforces brand availability. The application of marketing principles and techniques to promote a social cause, idea or behavior has been effectively used in many areas such as health, cigarette smoking, infant and maternal mortality and so, on. Bill board strategy, as (Conchita, 2006) observed, has been found to significantly contributed to the attainment of specific programme objectives and goals. In a study, Conchita applied marketing principles and techniques on solid waste management and found that billboard is a good strategy for solid waste management. There were no studies connecting billboard advertising for solid waste management campaigns. Rolfe (2012), identified solid waste reduction through Billboards advertising. Rolfe believes that Billboards advertising on solid waste helped to instill environmental health awareness and action among the citizens and ensure the protection of public health and pharmaceutical companies have Billboards on solid waste management (SWM) within the south-south geo-political zone of Nigeria.

Rapid urbanization and concentration of industries, consumption of residents and inadequate finance has led to the increase in solid waste (NEMA 2007:276). There are several factors that have led to increased solid waste generation which is rapid urbanization (UNEP, 2007), Urbanization comes with expansion of towns, which manifests through the growth of social and economic infrastructures or services and industrialization. An increased population automatically means increase demand for not only social service but also consumables which potentially present a larger base for waste generation, mostly solid waste. It serves as a form of enlightenment campaign to the citizens, and as such help to promote environmental cleanliness. Solid waste management, is the most pressing environmental challenge faced by urban and rural areas of Nigeria with a population exceeding l7Omillion, is one of the largest producers of solid waste in Africa, despite a host of policies and regulations.

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As urbanization continues to take place, the management of solid waste is becoming a major public health and. environmental concern in Nigeria. The concern is serious particularly in the capital cities which are often gateways to the countries for foreign diplomats, businessmen and tourists. Ogawa (2008) believes that poor visual appearance of these cities will have negative impacts on official and tourist visits and foreign investment. A typical solid waste management system in Nigeria, displays an array of problems, including low collection coverage and irregular collection services, crude open dumping and burning without air and water pollution control, the breeding of flies and vermin, and the handling and control of informal waste picking and scavenging activities (Akpoghiran,20 17). These public health, environmental, and management problems are caused by various human factors which constrain the development of effective solid waste management systems.

Insufficient enlightenment campaigns on solid waste management through Billboards and other mass media still remains one of the reasons why malaria, is a killer illness in Africa. These disturbing reasons formed the basis for this study.

Statement of the Problem

The purpose of outdoor media, as in the case of Billboards advertising, is to gain attention of the public. Despite all the areas have been used to promote ranging from beauty products, foods, and so, on, one area that may not have appeared on billboard advertising, on solid waste management. Every person is a potential generator of waste and thus, a contributor to this problem. To generate waste is one thing, the type of waste generated is another and yet also, the way the generated waste is managed or disposed, is quite a different issue.

Conchita (2006) and Chijide (2012) have identified lack of enlightenment methods on solid waste management through Billboards which still remains one of the major reasons why diseases continue to give rise in the county and Africa as a whole. How to enlighten the public on waste management through the use of Billboards advertising and how effective it is, one of the problems posed (Akpoghiran, 2017). Poor enlightenment campaign is one of the causes of poor attitude to waste management. The problem of solid waste management not having appeared on Billboards advertising is such a great issue. Human factor is seen to contribute to public health, environmental and management problems and as such, constrain the development of effective solid waste management system. The study will show how people can be made to manage their waste through Billboards campaigns or advertising. Also, it will reveal if billboard advertising, could be seen as an effective tool for solid waste management, and also if public enlightenment programmes are effective and if Billboards have the needed coverage, intensity, and continuity to correct the apathetic public, towards the environment.

Successful solid waste management in Nigeria, will require a holistic program (Akpoghiran, 2017), in this case is the Billboards advertising that will integrate all the technical, economic, social, cultural and psychological factors that are often ignored in solid waste programs. In order to control the manner in which solid wastes are handled by individuals and authorities concerned with solid waste management, there is need to educate the citizens and raise awareness on the negative impact of improper management of solid wastes. Adopting a waste management awareness and education strategy, would clearly indicate commitment to raising public awareness on waste. This enlightenment strategy will make residents change their habits, behavior and traditions towards recycling for the better. Using Billboards advertising, is a great strategy for this problem. Thus, the problem of this research is to find out how Billboards advertising can help in solid waste management. The problems stated above, formed the ground work of this study.

Objective of the Study

Generally, the objective of the study is to find out if billboard advertising promotes solid waste management.

Specifically, however, it seeks among others, to:

1.       Determine if billboard advertising; can promote enlightenment campaigns for solid waste management in Effurun, Delta State.

2.       Ascertain the effectiveness of Billboards advertising on solid waste management.

3.       Determine the perception of inhabitants on Billboards advertising on solid waste management.

4.       Examine whether billboard is a good strategy for the promotion of solid waste management.

While other studies may have focused on the other forms of outdoor advertising, like street furniture (bus shelters, kiosks, telephone booths, etc), transit advertisements, and wraps (taxis, buses, subways, trains etc). This study focuses on the billboard form of outdoor advertising.

Research Questions

The following are some of the research questions that will guide us throughout the study:

1.       Do Billboards advertising promote enlightenment campaigns for solid waste management in Effurun?

2.       What is the effectiveness of Billboards advertising on solid waste management?

3.       What are the perceptions of inhabitants on Billboards advertising on solid waste management?

4.       Is billboard a good strategy for the promotion of solid waste management?

Significance of the Study

By reviewing the available literature, collecting and analyzing data, drawings conclusion and making recommendations from findings, this study will be relevant to the Effurun community, the researcher and future researchers. Findings and recommendations emerging from this study will be of great benefits to the geographical zones, particularly, Effurun, Delta State, as it will expose them to the strength of outdoor media especially Billboards messages and also educate them on certain human factors for development and also help to instill environmental health awareness and action, for the protection of public health and the environment.

Also by seeking a solution to the identified problems above, the researcher will gain more knowledge on billboard advertising for solid waste management. Lastly, this study will act as a reference point and support to future researchers, who may seek further clarification on related themes of billboard advertising.

Scope of the Study

Conceptually, the scope of this study is on billboard advertising for the promotion of solid waste management. Geographically, the study covers Effurun. This town was chosen because there is high population and the need to encourage Billboards advertising. Demographically, it will include the inhabitants, the reason been that they are within the confines of the environment or town.

Definition of Terms/Concepts

The terms were operationally defined:

Advertising: This is a marketing Communication that employs an openly sponsored, non-personal message to promote or sell a product, service/idea. It is used to communicate with the end users of the product or service being offered. It is about informing the consumers about their products and convinces customers that a company’s services and products are the best.

Adoption: Refers to the act of embracing ideas and habits.

Attitude: The way individuals think and feel about something. It is the predisposition of a tendency to respond positively or negatively towards a certain idea or situation. Attitude is the influence of individual’s choice of action.

Advertising Campaign: This is the series of advertisement messages that share a single idea and theme which make up an integrated market communication.

Billboard: Also called hoarding is a large outdoor advertising structure, typically found in high-traffic areas, such as alongside busy roads. It is the best way to keep the viewers informed, be it businesses, promotions or products.

Effurun: This is the capital town of Uvwie Local Government Area of Delta State, Nigeria. It is highly populated and is a gateway into the City of Warn. The region is rich in crude oil and it is regarded by many as the historic heart of civilization Urhobo. Effurun town lies north of Ovwian and is situated close to Edjeba and Eruemukohwarien town. Effurun town is home to the Federal University Of Petroleum Resource.

Enlightenment campaign: This is a planned set of activities that people carry out over a period of time in order to achieve something, such as social change, commercial goal. Public enlightenment is the lifeblood of any society.

Environment: Also called an ecosystem. It is the circumstances, objects, or conditions by which one is surrounded. Also, it is the sum total of all surrounding of a living organism. Inhabitants: Refers to an entity that inhabits a place, especially as a permanent resident. It is one that occupies a particular place regularly, routinely, or for a period of time.

Outdoor media: It is also known as out of home advertising and it’s focused on reaching the consumers while they are on the go in public places, transit, or waiting.

Promotion: An activity that supports or encourages a cause, venture or aim. The aim simply, is to create awareness.

Solid Waste: Also known as garbage, are organic and inorganic waste materials produced by households, commercial, institutional and industrial activities that have lost value in the sight of the initial user.

Solid Waste Management: Refers to the supervised handling of waste material from generation at the source through the recovery processes to disposal.

Strategy: Refers to a plan of action designed to achieve a long term or overall aim. It is the method or plan chosen to bring about a desired future.

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