BACKGROUND OF STUDY
Education has been acknowledged as the key to long-term success by individuals and society. Education has played a critical role in the survival of individuals and civilizations in all human communities, past and present. A well-planned and well-directed education may gauge a country’s growth capability. As a result, education is seen as a behavioral attribute. It has an impact on one’s talents, attitudes, beliefs, reasoning ability, knowledge, and any other form that helps one to adjust and interact successfully with others. The development of talents allows an individual and a community to grow toward the fulfillment of the individual’s destiny.
Importantly, with the growth of technology and the introduction of instructional aids, the educational sector in Nigeria has undergone continual transformation. The success of using instructional resources for the teaching and learning of business education can only be demonstrated in the degree of academic achievement of business education students. The significance of instructional materials in the teaching and learning process is critical. It improves the kids’ memory levels. According to (NIC hulls, 2003; Raw 2006), oral teaching cannot be the key to effective pedagogy at current time since education has expanded far and completely; consequently, the teacher must employ instructional resources to make the teaching and learning process engaging. According to Abdullahhi (2010), instructional materials are instruments manufactured locally or imported that aid in the teaching/learning process. In the same way, Obanga (2005) views them as materials items that are used to construct compositions that might produce a huge improvement in intellectual usage affect the instructional materials.
The usage of instructional materials can improve learning outcomes. Cronbach (2009) defines the key parts of behavior that serve as the foundation for learning theory situations, which include all of the things, people, and symbols in the learning environment. According to Umoh-Mac Nkume (2000), various studies on the availability of accessible resources conducted in Nigeria, at institutions offering Business Education programs, have found the presence of inadequate training facilities. They went on to say that even the few that are available are not being maintained. They become non-functional as a result of inadequate storage facilities.
Obi and Akume (2001) emphasized that any institution that wants to offer a contemporary Business Education curriculum must include a complete instruction in the usage of these products. In order to provide such training, the school must also be equipped with the devices that will be used to provide instructions. To elaborate, they argued that in order for the teaching process to be effective in general, appropriate people and material resources must be supplied. In this regard, the study is to investigate the use of instructional materials for successful business education teaching and learning in junior secondary schools in Oyigbo River State.
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
The primary goal of teaching is to transfer ideas, skills, and attitudes from the instructor to the learner. In Nigeria, for example, experience has shown that utilizing spoken words alone to communicate concepts is ineffective and wasteful in terms of achieving desired learning results. Every year, when the results of the public test are published, business education suffers a tremendous failure. Despite the federal government’s emphasis on self-reliance through acquisition, there are several flaws, such as insufficient supply or provision of raw materials, as well as poor maintenance and storage of existing ones. Oren (1998) remarked that because Business Education is a skill-oriented topic, successful instruction necessitates the use of machines and other equipment. As a result, inclusive teaching will take place. As a result, it is expected that the federal government, through the ministries of education at the federal, state, and municipal levels, will ensure the provision or availability of these necessary resources for teaching and learning of these required abilities. According to Oyedele (2000), as cited in Atakps (2001), children and youths in Nigeria are being educated in conformity with yesterday’s world rather than in preparation for tomorrow’s life. This is consistent with what Umoh-Mac and Nkume (2000) stated regarding the outdated equipment in Nigerian schools. Emphasizing the need of providing instructional resources in schools, Obi and Akume believe that Business Education, as a sophisticated field of study, cannot be learned by students sitting, folding their arms, and nodding their heads. To provide this training, schools must be supplied with the essential resources, but it appears that the majority of schools that teach Business Education subjects are not sufficiently equipped for the lessons. The purpose of resource materials is to make the teaching and learning process easier, more meaningful, and clear. Uzoegwu Uzoegwu Uzoegwu (2001).
In spite the wealth of literature on instructional material in other subject, the researcher deem it fit to reemphasize on this topic with reference business education subject this because most teachers see business studies as a subject that does not require teaching aid for clarity (Charles 2017). Thu upon this premise that this study seeks to the impact and role of instructional material in secondary school students’ academic achievement in Economics.
OBJECTIVES OF STUDY
The main aim of the research work is to examine the use of instructional materials for effective teaching and learning of business education in junior secondary schools. Other specific objectives of the study include:
- To determine the factors affecting the performance of student in business education.
- To investigate the extent at which business education teachers utilize instructional aids during teaching and learning of business education.
- To determine the extent to which the use of instructional aids can impact junior secondary School students’ learning of business education
- To ascertain whether there will be any difference in the academic performance of secondary schools students in business education due to the use of instructional Aids.
The study came up with research questions so as to be able to ascertain the above stated objectives. The specific research questions for the study are stated below as follows:
- What are the factors affecting the performance of student in business education?
- What is the extent at which business education teachers utilize instructional aids during teaching and learning of business education?
- What is the extent to which the use of instructional aids can impact junior secondary School students’ learning of business education?
- Will there be any difference in the academic performance of secondary schools students in business education due to the use of instructional Aids?
SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
The use of instructional aids gives the learner opportunity to touch, smell or taste objects in the teaching and learning process. Consequently, knowledge passed unto the students at different levels of educational instructions should be well planned and properly allied with relevant instructional materials for clarity and comprehensibility. Hence the significance of this study to the students, teachers, curriculum planners, educational system and the society at large. To the students, the effective use of instructional aids would enable them to effectively learn and retain what they have learnt and thereby advancing their performance in the subject in question. The study would help enhance teachers’ teaching effectiveness and productivity. The study is also significant to the educational system and society at large. This is because when teachers solidify their teaching with instructional materials and the learners learn effectively, the knowledge acquired will reflect in the society positively. Students will be able to understand the functioning of the economy, interpret government’s economic policies and activity and perform economically better in the choice of life and work. The study will also serve as a reference material to scholars and student who wishes to conduct further studies in related field.
SCOPE OF STUDY
The study on the use of instructional materials for effective teaching and learning business education in Kwara State will cover the relationship between the use of instructional materials and students academic achievement in business education in junior secondary schools. The study is however delimited to selected junior secondary school in Ilorin South Local government in Kwara State
LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
Like in every human endeavour, the researchers encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. The significant constraint was the scanty literature on the subject owing that it is a new discourse thus the researcher incurred more financial expenses and much time was required in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size covering only senior secondary school in junior secondary school in Ilorin South Local government in Kwara State. Thus findings of this study cannot be used for generalization for other senior secondary school in other states within Nigeria. Additionally, the researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work will impede maximum devotion to the research. Howbeit, despite the constraint encountered during the research, all factors were downplayed in other to give the best and make the research successful.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
BUSINESS EDUCATION: involves teaching students the fundamentals, theories, and processes of business
INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS: refer to the human and non-human materials and facilities that can be used to ease, encourage, improved and promote teaching and learning activities
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