Background of the study
Even if there isn’t a universally agreed-upon definition of classroom management, Evertson and Weinstein (2020) have developed a framework that reflects a contemporary and largely held viewpoint on the topic. “It not only seeks to establish and sustain an orderly environment so students can engage in meaningful academic learning, but it also aims to enhance student social and moral growth,” write Evertson and Weinstein (2020) regarding the goals of classroom management. “It not only seeks to establish and sustain an orderly environment so students can engage in meaningful academic learning,” Teachers have made classroom management, which is also sometimes referred to as classroom discipline, a priority for the last almost four decades, or for as long as there have been opinion polls on the most important aspects of education. For instance, the Gallup Poll that was meant to evaluate people’s opinions of the public education system (Rose & Gallup, 2019) has shown that classroom management and school discipline are frequently listed as key issues. The American Psychological Association (APA) carried out a study of teachers from Pre-K through the 12th grade in the year 2006, and the respondents listed their primary need as assistance with classroom management and teaching abilities. The findings from more than 2300 answers revealed that instructors want help with classroom management due to their worries about the safety of their kids and their need for techniques to successfully deal with the negative and/or disruptive behaviors of their pupils.
Primary education is the first stage of formal education and has as its primary objective the creation, establishment, and provision of opportunities for all children, irrespective of their age, gender, or country of origin, in order for them to accomplish a well-rounded cognitive, emotional, and psychomotor development.
Pre-primary education is required for all children who will not be five years old until the first day of September in the school year in which they are scheduled to commence classes. This means that a kid must have turned four years and eight months old by that date. Primary school attendance is mandatory for all students who have attained the age of five years and eight months by the time they start kindergarten. The vast majority of preschools and kindergartens are operated by private businesses; nonetheless, they are required to register with the government and adhere to federal requirements. Preschools and kindergartens are often rather expensive, which means that only families with significant financial resources are able to send their children to attend. At the beginning of the 1990s, the federal government launched a program called Early Childhood Care and Development Education (ECCDE), but it was unable to make much headway because of the fast shifts in political climate at the time (Tal, 2020).
In 1991, just 4.7% of preschool-aged children had completed some kind of primary or pre-primary schooling. Children living in the neighbourhood were encouraged to apply for the program. Some localities started constructing their very own nurseries and preschools in 2001, with funding from the federal government as well as foreign grants and loans. This was done to show support for the UBE initiative. As a result, a program that focused on how the Ministry might transfer those features of the nursery environment that increased learning to the first level of the primary school was developed with the aid of UNICEF. The training of one hundred Infant Field Officers (IFOs) in classroom management, learning about the rights of a child, communication skills, and developing classroom aids and products for boosting reading abilities was the primary focus of the program. The training was conducted in three separate batches, and participants came not only from Georgetown but also from the other administrative regions of the nation (Tal, 2020).
Following the completion of the training, the participants were tasked with returning to their respective schools and leading staff development sessions. These sessions were to be held not only within the participants’ own schools, but also within the cluster of schools located in their respective communities, in order to achieve a multiplier effect. Evaluating this project is the next step in determining the extent to which the program was affected. In the field of early childhood development, one of the most important sources of financing is the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF). Additionally, UNICEF played an important role in the conception and launch of the cumulative record cards, which will now follow children as they transition from the nursery level to the primary level of education. All of the schools now have printed copies of the wall graphics, curriculum guides, and instructor manuals that support reading and language development. This has resulted in the establishment of a consistent schedule for nursery schools all around the nation (Tal, 2020). A little more than thirty percent of nursery school instructors have had formal education, according to the statistics that can be found in the statistical digests published by the Ministry of Education. Continuous efforts have been undertaken in order to ensure that this training is maintained. Not only does the CPCE provide a training curriculum for nursery teachers that lasts for two years, but the University of Guyana also gives students the opportunity to earn a Bachelor of Education degree in Early Childhood Education. The Ministry of Education also selected educators to get training as Nursery Field Officers (often the Heads of nursery schools), and it began hosting weekly seminars. To this day, there have been four (4) batches of Nursery Field Officers educated, and the nursery level now boasts a total of eighty-five (85) Field Officers who are dispersed over all of the Regions. These Nursery Field Officers, in turn, are responsible for leading workshops within their respective Regions in order to improve the expertise of their fellow employees. In spite of the increasing chances for training, there has not been a discernible rise in the proportion of instructors who have received training. After receiving their training, some employees leave to pursue careers in the private sector, while others move forward in the public sector in search of greater advancement chances.
Statement of problems
There is considerable cause for worry over the possibility that in the not too distant future, the percentage of educated instructors, and in particular trained graduates, may decrease. Instructors’ incomes and working conditions are not comparable with those given by the private sector or by chances outside the private sectors. As a result, the education sector has lost many teachers as a result of migration over the course of the last two decades (Ferk, 2019). The number of people departing had significantly slowed down in the early years of the decade, but recent years have seen a surge as more possibilities have become available throughout Africa and other regions of Nigeria. In spite of the fact that primary education ought to be given the utmost priority due to the central role it plays in the achievement of a fundamental education, it is of the utmost importance to be aware of the interdependence that must necessarily exist between the various levels of the educational system.
Objectives of the study
The general objective of the study is to examine training and strategies in other for good classroom management practice in public nursery and primary schools. Specifically, the study will be guided under the following:
i. To examine if teacher training will lead to good classroom management practice.
ii. To find out the challenges of of teachers in having a good classroom management.
iii. To develop the strategies that can be used by teachers for good classroom management.
iv. To investigate how to improve teachers classroom management practice.
The following questions have been prepared for the study:
i. Will teacher training lead to good classroom management practice?
ii. What are the challenges of of teachers in having a good classroom management?
iii. What are the strategies that can be used by teachers for good classroom management?
iv. How can teachers improve classroom management practice?
Significant of the study
The study will help in will review the techniques in management classroom curricula of the system, and its teaching and learning materials, with respect to gender considerations, and appropriate revisions will be made.
Monitoring tools and mechanisms will be developed by the Ministry of Education for following the treatment of gender issues in the school system, and for providing corresponding feedback to school administrators and teachers.
Improved baseline for policy makers and planners on education on , systematic classroom management procedures
The study will be help in developed and implemented policy that will improve classroom management for the benefit of effective teaching in the classroom
Training programmes for school administrators, central educational authorities and regional officials will be strengthened and applied more broadly.
Special orientation and training programmes will be instituted for newly appointed teaching officials.
Similarly, mechanisms will be developed for the involvement of representatives of local communities and regions in overall education planning and delivery, including issues related to the curriculum.
Scope of the study
The study will examine if teacher training will lead to good classroom management practice. The study will also find out the challenges of of teachers in having a good classroom management. The findings will further develop the strategies that can be used by teachers for good classroom management. Lastly, the study will investigate how to improve teachers classroom management practice. Hence this study is delimited to Ogun state.
Limitation of the study
Like in every human endeavour, the researchers encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire, and interview), which is why the researcher resorted to a moderate choice of sample size. More so, the researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.
Definition of Terms
Training: This means training somebody for something in order to be somebody or something.
Strategies: a plan of action designed to achieve a long-term or overall aim.
Classroom management: the actions teachers take to establish and sustain an environment that fosters students’ academic achievement as well as their social, emotional, and moral growth