Education Project Topics

A Review of Principals Supervisory Roles and Its Impact on Instructions and Student Academic Performance




Background to the Study

Quality cannot be sacrificed in any educational system. The quality of a country’s formal education and schooling is determined by the quality of its educational administrators (principal instructors) and learners (students). The changes in Nigeria’s educational system, particularly at the secondary school level, necessitate that school principals perform a larger and more essential role in educational oversight. According to (Grauwe and Carron, 2018), principals’ supervisory function in schools, particularly on its teaching and non-teaching staff services, is a major problem since it affects the quality of education that the school gives to its pupils. School administrators serving as school inspectors tend to reflect a sense of superiority on the part of inspectors who are solely concerned with the well-being of pupils and have no regard for instructors. The supervisory function of the principal is a significant topic in educational leadership. It entails extensive leadership oversight of teacher skills, student academic performance, teacher effectiveness, and technical abilities. The Ministry of Education’s National Policy on Education (2004) outlined how the primary function of educational leadership must be effective.

According to Yunus (2021), educational supervision is a dynamic process in education that aims to improve the quality of teaching and learning. According to Nwankwo (2021), supervision may be classified. There is instructional supervision and personnel supervision. Instructional supervision is described as a series of actions carried out with the goal of improving the teaching and learning purposes for the learners. Personnel supervision, on the other hand, refers to the set of activities carried out by the supervisor with the basic goal of sensitizing, mobilizing, and monitoring school staff in order for them to perform their duties in terms of achieving the stated aims and objectives of the educational system. Principals are in charge of admissions, health, the lunchroom, textbooks, supplies, records, and many other auxiliary functions in the educational system. As a result, a school administrator’s or principal’s responsibility is to monitor, plan, and implement competitive tactics for the school. The principal is thus charged with the responsibility of effectively supervising teachers in order to improve their instructional performance, making recommendations, and managing both human and material resources in order to achieve the principal as the head of the school, as the architect of the quality of activities in the school, and the quality of academic achievement of students is dependent on the quality of instructional performance.

Many families have suffered greatly as a result of the high percentage of failure in Senior Secondary Certificate Examinations in public secondary schools throughout the years. The situation appeared to be deteriorating with time. Poor student performance in public examinations has been related to weak and incompetent principal supervision (Effiong, 2016). Education stakeholders have recently raised worry about students’ low performance. Some accused school officials (principals) and teachers, while others blamed students and parents. Whoever is to blame, the truth remains that the school and its organizational administration have a link with students’ academic accomplishment. Olaleye (2021) opined that in the school system, supervision is as old as the teaching profession and has undergone a series of evolutions since the colonial era, it is directed towards sustaining and improving the teaching-learning process in the educational system, this is because education plays an important role in the social, political, and economic development of any nation, which explains why it has country and the entire world. Instructional supervision is the skill of supervising the teaching-learning process and ensuring that the school is effectively administered, managed, and led to attain educational goals.

The principal plays a critical role in the instructional improvement program by effectively and efficiently supervising teachers’ instructional performance through various supervisory techniques. It follows that the principal’s supervisory functions must be adequate to influence teachers’ instructional performance. This intended expectation in education may be met by good supervision, which raises instructors’ understanding of sound educational concepts (Nwaogu, 2021). Principals oversee and monitor teachers’ work and behavior in order to enhance individual instructors’ abilities, regardless of how proficient they are regarded to be, and to provide pupils with excellent learning. The principle is responsible for ensuring that good teaching and learning take place by utilizing various instructional performance. Osakwe went on to say that the amount to which teachers accomplish their duties determines the quality of education and the usage of principals’ supervisory roles in schools. Effective supervision, as well as the amount to which principals carry out their supervisory obligations, are founded on good concepts that serve as a guidepost for constructive activities aimed at enhancing the teaching-learning process in the school system. In the school system, instructional supervision is concerned with the use of various techniques’ methods, principles, and practices to define, develop, and implement the objectives, policies, plans, and procedures required to attain educational goals. Thus, supervision is concerned with providing professional help and direction to teachers and students in order to ensure successful teaching and learning in the school.


Instructional supervision guides instructors and allows them to integrate appropriate feedback to improve the teaching-learning process. The reality is that the effectiveness of an educational program, particularly in terms of achieving effective learning, is heavily dependent on the work performance of the teachers. The unfortunate scenario of low performance of public secondary school student in Nigeria may necessitate extensive instructional monitoring in order to achieve school goals and objectives. The fundamental goal of instructional supervision is to guarantee that teaching and learning take place in an appropriate environment and provide the intended results. The significance of instructional supervision in achieving successful learning in today’s educational system cannot be overstated, particularly at the secondary school level, which is seen as a critical step in career decisions (Babatope and Gabriel, 2019).


Despite the fact that secondary schools are considered to have well-trained, competent instructors and principals, pupils’ performance in senior secondary school examinations has remained poor. Without a targeted inquiry, the causes for poor performance are difficult to determine. As Emenike (2022) observed, teachers work in unconducive classroom environments; in some schools, classrooms are not well lit or ventilated; and in some classrooms, movement around the class is always hampered, making it difficult for teachers to monitor every student’s activities and progress in the class. Because of the abysmal economic strength, instructors go beyond their monthly wage by engaging in other companies, and as a result, many teachers have a nonchalant attitude toward their instruction and some of them play truant. Teachers’ poor regard in the eyes of society, as well as their lack of self-esteem, contribute to indiscipline among them. Lateness to class, absenteeism, trade during school hours, poor use of diaries and lesson notes in class, records that are not properly preserved, and generally breaking the instructors’ code of professional ethics are examples of indiscipline. All of this renders instructors inept and uninterested in their jobs, unless the administration pursues them. As a result, there has been a persistent drop in instructors’ instructional task performance and students’ academic achievement, indicating that quality assurance is not being realized in secondary schools (Ajayi 2022). The following gaps and challenges have been identified: many principals’ lack of commitment to supervision, a lack of proper monitoring and evaluation of students’ learning outcomes, insufficient training facilities to develop teachers for professional growth and increased productivity, and a lack of adoption of a code of conduct for learners (students). This study therefore, sought to review principals supervisory roles and its impact on instructions and student academic performance.

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The aim of this research work is to investigate and its impact on instructions and student academic performance. The following objectives are to achieve the purpose of the study.

1. To examine the attitude of principal towards supervision of instruction.

2.To examine the effectiveness of supervision techniques adopted by secondary school principals.

3.To identify the challenges faced by principal in the course of instruction supervision.

4.To examine the impact of principal supervision of instruction on student performance.


Ho1: The attitude of principal towards supervision of instruction is negative.

Ho2: Principal supervision of instruction has no significant impact on student academic performance.


The study is significant in the sense that the findings may have implications for secondary school principals, teachers, students, the state and the country at large. The study is designed to provide useful information for principals in the supervision of teachers in secondary schools for improvement of instruction. It is hoped that the findings of this study would improve the instructional effectiveness of teachers so that they can contribute to the attainment of educational goals in Lagos State. The findings of this work could be of help to the external supervisors from the Ministry of Education whose manner of inspection is dreaded by both the principals and the teachers. Again, the students stand to reap the immense benefits as teachers’ job performance will be affected positively through correct usage of instructional supervisory strategies by principals. It is also vital as it would add to the existing studies and literature relating to the principals instructional supervisory strategies and student academic performance. Finally, it will also serves as a reference point for future research.


The scope of this study is to investigate principal’s supervisory roles on instruction and academic performance of student. The study is however delimited to selected secondary schools in Akure Local Government Area, Ondo State.


Like in every human endeavour, the researchers encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. The significant constraint was the scanty literature on the subject owing that it is a new discourse thus the researcher incurred more financial expenses and much time was required in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size covering only public secondary schools in Akure Local Government Area, Ondo State. Thus findings of this study cannot be used for generalization for other secondary schools in other States within Nigeria. Additionally, the researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work will impede maximum devotion to the research. Howbeit, despite the constraint encountered during the research, all factors were downplayed in other to give the best and make the research successful..


School: This is an environment where children go to be taught and educated. A typical example is a secondary school. In this study, school is the first factor to be considered because it is a place where the principal will exercise his regular duties both on the teachers and the learners.

Principal: Principal refers to the head of a school or other educational institution. Fullen (1992:41) sees the principal as actively engaged as initiator or facilitator of continuous improvement in his school.  In this study, the principal refers to somebody who as head of the school, plans, initiates, supervises and organizes the teaching and learning activities in the school. To accomplish that he needs to work co-operatively with the educators.

Supervision: This is a leadership role that entails coordinating and managing of the school activities concerned with teaching and learning Daresh (1982:2) sees supervision as a process of overseeing the ability of people to meet the goals of the organization in which they work. Wills & Bondi’s (1991:8) definition of supervision focuses on administration, curriculum, instruction, human relations, management and leadership. According to this study, supervision aims at the development of the teacher’s knowledge, skills and work environment, to facilitate pupil’s learning to achieve the goals of the organization.

Academic performance: They refer to the quality of education taught in the school system. In the aspect of learning habit of the students, they need to be very serious with their academics in order to obtain good grade at the e



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