Treatment of Produced Water to Meet Irrigation Standard
Content Structure of Treatment of Produced Water to Meet Irrigation Standard
- The abstract contains the research problem, the objectives, methodology, results, and recommendations
- Chapter one of this thesis or project materials contains the background to the study, the research problem, the research questions, research objectives, research hypotheses, significance of the study, the scope of the study, organization of the study, and the operational definition of terms.
- Chapter two contains relevant literature on the issue under investigation. The chapter is divided into five parts which are the conceptual review, theoretical review, empirical review, conceptual framework, and gaps in research
- Chapter three contains the research design, study area, population, sample size and sampling technique, validity, reliability, source of data, operationalization of variables, research models, and data analysis method
- Chapter four contains the data analysis and the discussion of the findings
- Chapter five contains the summary of findings, conclusions, recommendations, contributions to knowledge, and recommendations for further studies.
- References: The references are in APA
Produced water was defined by Veil et al. (2004) as saline water with hydro-carbons extracted from the rocks to the surface. The oil and gas industry is a combination of industries: oil, coal-bed methane and conventional non-associated gas producers. The aqueous effluent from such process operations is the largest volume stream in the oil and gas operation and exploration processes. Different types of fluids such as saline-water, oil and gas are held down by rocks in the sub-surfaces. The hydrocarbon compounds are saturated with saline water and then captured in the rocks. Due to the density difference, the hydrocarbons with lower density travelled to capture locations in rocks. This led the displacement of saline water. At certain thermodynamic conditions, saline water and hydrocarbons are absorbed by the rocks. Saline water comes from lower side, above and the flow within hydrocarbon zone. There is another type of water that comes with saline water referred to as “connate water” or “formation water”. Formation water is the water which is produced during the production activities by the injection of fluids and additives.
Table 1.1:Some of the possible options available for the management of produced water are
|Avoid production of water onto the surface||Using polymer gels that block water contributing fissures or fractures or Downhole Water Separators which separate water from oil or gas streams downhole and reinject it into suitable formations.|
|Inject produced water||Inject the produced water into the same formation or another suitable formation; involves transportation of produced water from the producing to the injection site.|
|Discharge produced water||Treat the produced water to meet onshore or offshore discharge regulations.|
|Reuse in oil and gas operations||Treat the produced water to meet the quality required to use it for drilling, stimulation, and workover operations.|
|Consume in beneficial use||In some cases, significant treatment of produced water is required to meet the quality required for beneficial uses such as irrigation, rangeland restoration, animal consumption, and drinking water for private use.|
Increased agricultural production to feed the increasing world population and the everexpandingneed of industry, have made great demands on the limited water supply. The total global water (surface and ground water) is estimated to be 1,52 million km cubic from which, salty water (sea and oceans) 95-97%, polar water 4.2%. Hence, only 1% can be used and is available as surface and ground water.A reliable and suitable irrigation water supply can result in vast improvement in agricultural production and the economic vitality of the region.Irrigated agriculture is dependent on an adequate water supply of suitable quality. Water quality concerns have often been neglected because water supplies have been plentiful and readily available in the past, this situation is now changing in many countries.There is a steady increase of the amount of water used and wastewater produced by urban communities and industry. This poses potential health and environmental hazards. An effective way of treatment and reuse or disposal is necessary. At some time increased attention is being focused on agricultural plantations to make use of this water.
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Water produced during oil and gas extraction operations constitutes the industry’s most important waste stream on the basis of volume. The volume of water produced globally by oil and gas operations is staggering. The last major global study of produced water, dating from the late 1990s, estimated that the industry was bringing up 210m barrels of produced water each day. The produced water contains both dissolved and dispersed oil and these pose health hazards to human health and contamination of the environment.
Oil and gas production companies have always faced the problem of how to treat or dispose produced water. Stricter environmental controls have added pressure to the issue. High level of impurities make this water an unusable by-product. This project will address the issue of pollution caused by produced water discharge by treating the produced water to meet irrigation purpose.
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
The aim of this project is to treat produced water to meet irrigation standard. The objective is to treat, analyse and compare produced water physico chemical parameters with Central Coast Regional Water Quality Control Board (CCRWQCB) criteria for irrigation and DPR standard for disposable water.
SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
Treated produced water has the potential to be a valuable product rather than a waste.Treating oil well produced water helps facilitate water management options for operators, such as beneficial uses that provide certain community and economic advantages. This project intends to tackle the problem of pollution pose by produced water by treating the water to meet irrigation standard.
SCOPE AND LIMITATION
This work will focus on using distillation and banana peel as a biosorbent to treat produced water from Umutu flowstation, Oredo flowstation and Oredo field. Only produced water from Umutu flowstation will be analyse. DPR standard and the Central Coast Regional Water Quality Control Board (CCRWQCB) water quality requirement for irrigation is the standard used, other standards were neglected.