THE INFLUENCE OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS ON THE LEARNING AND TEACHING OF ECONOMICS IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLSCHAPTER ONE
Background Of The Study
It is undeniable that instructional materials have an impact on students’ academic achievement, as well as teaching and learning in educational growth. Economics education in Nigerian secondary schools must be effectively managed. At the basic and secondary school levels of our educational system, the materials used by teachers to educate and drive home their subject points are undeniably a critical factor in successful classroom interaction and knowledge transfer from the teacher to the students.
The term “instructional materials” refers to things that help teachers make their courses more plain to students. They can also be used to provide information, thoughts, and notes to students (Ijaduola) (1997). Pictures, flashcards, posters, charts, tape recorder, radio, video, television, and computers are examples of visual and audiovisual instructional resources. These products are meant to augment the traditional teaching methods.
Economics as a discipline was born in 1776 with the publication of Adam Smith, the founder of the classical school of thinking; since then, it has played a variety of roles, particularly in political and educational circles. Microeconomics and macroeconomics are the two primary branches of economics. Microeconomics investigates the behavior and operations of particular economic units (households, businesses, and government agencies), whereas macroeconomics examines the overall economy in aggregates and averages (Umoh, 2007). Three major languages are used in teaching and communicating economic ideas, according to Aromolaran (2006). Theoretical or verbal, geometric or pictorial, and algebraic or mathematical languages are examples of these languages.
Students must credit Economics before being admitted to any higher institution, particularly a university, to pursue related courses such as Accountancy, Business Administration, Insurance, and so on. The importance and technicality of this subject necessitates the use of appropriate instructional materials to teach it to students. This is confirmed by Macaulay (1989), who claims that visual aids bring lessons to life and help pupils learn more effectively.
In light of this, the purpose of this study is to determine the extent to which the use of instructional materials can improve the performance of senior secondary school students in Economics.
Poor academic performance in Economics might be attributable to a variety of variables, with the teacher’s strategy being one of the most crucial. This means that without the use of instructional materials, mastery of economic ideas may not be fully acquired. Teaching Economics without the use of instructional materials is almost guaranteed to result in low academic performance. According to Franzer, Okebukola, and Jegede (1992), a professionally competent scientific teacher, regardless of how highly taught, will be unable to put his or her ideas into effect if the educational setting lacks the appropriate equipment and tools.
According to Bassey (2002), science is resource demanding, and it may be difficult to locate some of the electronic devices and equipment needed to successfully teach Economics in schools during a moment of economic distress. A situation that is further compounded by the galloping inflation in the country and many at times, some of the imported sophisticated materials and equipment are found expensive and irrelevant; hence the need to produce materials locally.
According to researchers like as Obioha (2006) and Ogunleye (2002), there are insufficient resources for teaching Science topics in Nigerian secondary schools. They went on to say that the ones that are available are typically in poor shape. As a result, there is a need for improvisation. However, Adebimpe (1997) and Daramola (2008) emphasized that improvisation requires adventure, imagination, curiosity, and patience on the side of the instructor, and that such qualities can only be acquired through a well-planned improvisation training program.
Statement Of The Problem
The essential goal of teaching is to transfer ideas, skills, and attitudes from the instructor to the student. For example, in Nigeria, experience has shown that using spoken words alone to communicate concepts is useless and inefficient in achieving desired learning outcomes. Every year, when the results of public examinations are revealed, there is usually a large number of students who fail in Economics. The reason for this might be due to the fact that there are some concepts in Economics that students struggle to understand. Without the use of suitable instructional resources to make learning practical, these concepts cannot be effectively taught. As previously stated, scholars such as Mutebi and Matora (1994) have emphasized the impact of instructional materials on teaching and learning. According to them, we learn and retain 10% of what we hear, 40% of what we talk about with others, and up to 80% of what we actually experience or do. However, the question here is whether or whether using instructional materials has an impact on students’ academic achievement. Is the usage of instructional materials beneficial to teaching effectiveness?
Could students’ learning be advanced by the use of instructional materials? Finding answers to these questions and more summarizes the entire problem of this study.
Objectives Of The Study
The objectives of this study are:
1. To examine the influence of instructional material utilisation on the teaching of Economics in Senior Secondary Schools in Enugu North Local Government Area of Enugu state;
2. To ascertain the extent to which Senior Secondary School student’s learning of Economics can be influenced by the use of instructional materials
3. To determine whether there will be any difference in the academic performance of secondary schools students in Economics due to the use
For the successful completion of the study; the following research questions were formulated
1. What is the influence of instructional material utilisation on the teaching of Economics in Senior Secondary Schools in Enugu North Local Government Area of Enugu state ?
2.What is the extent to which Senior Secondary School student’s learning of Economics can be influenced by the use of instructional materials ?
3. will there be any difference in the academic performance of secondary schools students in Economics due to the use ??
Significance of the study
First and foremost, the study’s conclusions will have a significant impact on secondary school students, researchers, and instructors. This is because the study’s report will be a useful reference source for this group of students who are researching the influence of instructional materials on teaching.
The report has a lot of implications for the Nigerian government. This is because it will offer information to the government on how the lack of instructional resources for teachers is contributing to the country’s declining educational standards.
Furthermore, the study will be important to parents since such an issue may be discussed during a parent-teacher meeting, and this will serve as a helpful reference document in giving a solution.
Scope and limitation of the study
The scope of the study is the impact of instructional materials in teaching and learning Economics in senior secondary schools in Enugu North Local Government Area of Enugu state. However, the study has some constrained and limitations which are:
(a)Availability of research material: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study.
(b)Time: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
(c)Finance: The finance available for the research work does not allow for wider coverage as resources are very limited as the researcher has other academic bills to cover.
Definition of terms
School: A school is an institution designed for the teaching of students (or pupils) under the direction of teachers.
School environment: A school environment is a school that has appropriate facilities, well-managed classrooms available school based health supports and a clear, fair disciplinary policy. It also includes the physical and aesthetic surroundings and the safety, security, climate and culture of the school.
Academic achievement: Academic achievement refers to a student’s success in meeting short or long term goals in education.
Impact: The action of one object coming forcibly into contact with another.
Instructional materials: Instructional materials refer to the human and non-human materials and facilities that can be used to ease, encourage, improved and promote teaching and learning activities.
Teaching: Teaching is the art and science of helping others to grow in their knowledge and understanding.
Economics: It is the study of living organisms, divided into many specialized fields that cover their morphology, physiology, anatomy, behaviour, origin and distribution.
Secondary school: A secondary school is one means of delivering education to adolescents in level 2 or junior secondary education which is considered the second and final phase of basic education.