BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
The growth of street hawking in Nigeria has gotten so popular that it has now become a source of concern to education. For the time being, there is no widely agreed meaning for the phrase child hawking, however, it might simply be referred to as the abuse of a child by his or her parents, guardians, or any other adult in his or her presence. Child abuse, according to Edu and Edu (1990), is defined as the purposeful mistreatment of a child under the age of eighteen years into street sales. According to them, such treatment might involve both acts of commission (abuse) and omission (mistreatment). A restrictive meaning of child hawking is associated with life-threatening physical violence, such as violent beatings and rape (sexual harassment), which are inflicted on children by an adult member of the community, according to the definition. Another definition places focus on any treatment that is less favorable than the most favorable care and includes neglect, sexual and/or emotional abuse, and exploitation among its many components.
Street trading and child hawking have evolved into a worldwide phenomena and a global source of worry for people all over the world. In both industrialized and developing nations, according to the United Nations International Children Education Fund (NCICEF), between 100 and 200 million children are employed as farmworkers or domestic workers. Children between the ages of 10 and 14 in Nigeria are estimated to be participating in child labor and street dealing at a rate of 20%, according to government estimates. Nigeria alone is thought to contain between 12 and 15 million child hawkers, according to some estimates.
According to Human Rights Watch (2004), Nigerians have the world’s biggest child labor force, accounting for a quarter of the global total. A number of causes have contributed to Nigeria’s tremendous surge in child labor and street hawking, some of which are listed here. Because of the fast population expansion in developing nations, high rates of unemployment, inflation, poor salaries, and horrible working conditions, occurrences of child hawking and child labor have increased as youngsters seek to assist in providing for their families’ needs (Charles and Charles 2004, Deth 1993). It has also been suggested by Arat (2002) that the growth of enterprises may be associated with an increase in child hawking and child labor. Socioeconomic illnesses that impact children have been the subject of much empirical inquiry. It is true that countless studies have been conducted on children who, together with their parents, are out of the house on weekends and holidays. It is hoped that this research would bring to light the hazards connected with street trading and child hawking, as described by children who are involved in these behaviors.
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Children hawking in school is not a new occurrence in Nigeria today; in fact, it has been there for decades. There are two key ways in which street commerce and child hawking have the ability to poison young minds. First and foremost, a youngster who misses school on a regular basis will not be able to reap the full benefits of the educational system. For people who are desperate to obtain a certificate at any cost, this might result in poor performance in tests and the possibility of examination misconduct. These graduates may therefore turn out to be unqualified and under qualified, with negative effects for the nation as a whole, including higher national illiteracy levels.
Street trading and child hawking, on the other hand, may result in behavioral patterns that are detrimental to responsible citizenship. Their undesirable actions or illegal acts such as prostitution, armed robbery, and pick pocketing may result in them being arrested and sentenced to prison. According to Humert (2009) and Humphrices (2010), In an attempt to address the issue of child hawking and labor, several government measures have been put in place, however all have been ineffective. This is most likely due to the poor socioeconomic condition of the majority of Nigerians, who earn just enough to provide for themselves and their families’ needs. Several researchers, including Oruwari (1996), Okojie (1987), and Aderinto (2000), have linked the phenomena of child hawking and educational development to the socio-economic position of disadvantaged parents who live on the margins of metropolitan economies. This research will provide answers to the problems of child hawking and child development that are now being investigated. As a result of this conversation, it is anticipated that the remedies mentioned below will minimize the threat to its bare minimum. Upon this premise that this study seeks to
OBJECTIVES OF STUDY
The broad objective of this study is to examine effect of child hawking on educational development. Specifically the study seeks to:
i. Determine the causes of street hawking among senior secondary school student.
ii. Ascertain whether street hawking affect the learning interest of senior secondary school student.
iii. Investigate whether street hawking affect the academic development of senior secondary school student.
iv. Examine if street hawking affect the behavioral development of senior secondary school student.
The research is guided by the following :
i. What are the causes of street hawking among senior secondary school student?
ii. Does street hawking affect the learning interest of senior secondary school student?
iii. Does street hawking affect the academic development of senior secondary school student?
iv. Does street hawking affect the behavioral development of senior secondary school student?
SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
Clearly, children street hawking serves only to divert attention away from more serious issues while also exposing youngsters to harmful habits and increased danger. Parents will be encouraged to create objectives for their children and to inspire them in their academic work as a result of these findings, and the children will choose formal education above moneymaking ventures since it provides them with self-esteem, respect, prestige, and a good personality. School officials will be able to estimate how much of a difference they can make in a student’s academic performance based on this information. They can devise strategies to assist pupils in achieving academic success. Teachers will have a better understanding of why a student’s performance is such a disappointment. They will be able to assist pupils in coping with their academics regardless of the issues that are impacting their performance. The study will empirically contribute to the body of knowledge and serve as a reference resource for other academics working in a relevant field of study, among other things.
SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The scope of this study borders on the implication of street hawking on senior secondary school students’ academic achievement. This research also discusses the causes and effect on the academic development of the child, learning interest and seeks to discover behavioral effects of street hawking on the hawkers who are senior secondary school student. The study is however delimited selected secondary school in Owerrinta axis in Isiala Ngwa South local government area of Abia State.
LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
Like in every human endeavour, the researchers encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. The significant constraint was the scanty literature on the subject owing that it is a new discourse thus the researcher incurred more financial expenses and much time was required in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size covering only senior secondary schools in Owerrinta axis in Isiala Ngwa South local government area of Abia State. Thus findings of this study cannot be used generalization in other senior secondary schools in other states within Nigeria. Additionally, the researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work will impede maximum devotion to the research. Howbeit, despite the constraint encountered during the research, all factors were downplayed in other to give the best and make the research successful.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
Child: This is used in this study as a young human being the age of puberty. In other words, a young individual below the age of 18 years.
Street hawking: The act of selling of goods or foodstuffs and other items on the streets. It can also be described as act of selling, offering or exposing for sale any article in a public place.
Child labour: This simply means the use of children by other adults e.g. parents/guardians for economic purpose that brings income to such adults. UNICEF defines child labour as work that exceeds a minimum number of hours depending on the age of a child (especially those below 18 years) and on the type of work.
Abuse: As used in this study mean maltreatment of a person in an unjust or undesired manner. Therefore, the term child abuse refers to the physical or emotional or social mistreatment of children. World Health Organization (WHO, 2009) define it as any act or failure to act that which violates the rights of the child, to endanger his/ her optimum health, survival and development.