Background of the Study
Physical changes occur as children grow and develop. These transformations usher them into adolescence. Adolescence is the developmental stage between childhood and adulthood, characterized by biological, cognitive, and socio-emotional changes (Grabber; Brooks-Gunn & Peterson, 1996). Adolescence is a particularly tough time. This corresponds to what Pector (2004) refers to as a difficult period in which physical, mental, and social growth occur rapidly. In other words, adolescence is a time of rapid and significant change in physical, mental, and social development. It is a moment of transition that comprises significant biological, social, emotional, and cognitive changes that occur extremely fast over a relatively short amount of time (Smith, 1998).
Adolescence has always been seen as a vital phase in development. Adolescence is portrayed as a period of storm and stress in popular discourse, plays, films, drama, and novels, particularly in a more technologically sophisticated world (Nwachukwu, 2002). Adolescents in Nigeria are often referred to as youths. This is consistent with Ibeh’s (1990) observation that teenagers in Nigeria attend secondary schools, polytechnics, institutions of education, and universities. Many experts, including (Uba, 1987; and Adesomowo, 1988), believe that adolescence is a period of transition between childhood and maturity. It refers to the time in a person’s life when physiological and psychological processes are transitioning from puberty to adulthood.
Behavioural experts, such as Erikson, generally agree that adolescence is a time of upheaval and stress (Nwachukwu, 2002). The physiological changes that occur during puberty, as well as the need for adolescents to complete development tasks imposed by society, such as the push for independence, vocational preparation, the development of a basic philosophy of life, and sexual adjustment, are some of the issues that adolescents face (Nwachukwu, 1993). It is also seen to be a pivotal stage in psychological development, causing fundamental reorganizations in personality. Adolescents, according to Lewin (1989), have a rapidly expanding life space along geographic, social, and future temporal dimensions, and are trapped in an uncertain overlap between the duties of the child and the adult. The expanding of the living space in a dynamic and diversified society exposes the kid to numerous ambiguous or out-and-out conflict situations, which he is ill-equipped to handle. Adolescents, in other words, exhibit psychosocial difficulties such as acting-out behaviors such as violence, rage, arguing excessively loudly and impudently, fighting, truancy, depression, moodiness, disruptiveness, distractibility, gangsterism, and even cultism. With these issues, people are unable to deal with or even escape from the conditions.
Adolescents in school are students who are between the ages of 12 and 18 years old who are enrolled in school. There is speculation that in-school teenagers with these psychological issues may not concentrate on their studies, which may affect their performance. Uncertainty about one’s role, on the other hand, generates uncertainties for the teenager, who is expected to behave as an adult one moment and a kid the next.
Many professionals, such as (Lingren, 2001), believe that adolescence is a psychologically demanding and important age marked by a range of unusual behaviors. Relationships with peers are among the most noticeable psychological processes of adolescence. As children grow, mature, and enter early adolescence, their interaction with their peers grows, as does their attraction to peer identity. Adolescents begin to doubt adult norms and the need for parental supervision as they undergo fast physical, emotional, and social changes. They find it soothing to seek counsel from peers who understand and empathise with acquaintances in similar situations. They believe that by experimenting with their new ideals and putting their ideas to the test with their peers, they will be less afraid of being mocked (Lingren, 2001).
A peer might be somebody you look up to or someone you believe is your age or talent level. A peer can be a friend, a member of the community, or even someone on television (Hardcastle, 2002). Peer pressure is related with adolescence. Peer pressure may be a factor in academic achievement. This may be true because when an in-school teenager is subjected to negative peer pressure, he or she may lose sight of why he or she is in school, and this will undoubtedly have an impact on his or her academic performance. Academics understand that a child’s peer can have an impact on success, but the amount of that effect has been an open subject with no convincing solution, according to Kirk (2000).
Peer pressure refers to the effects that people of the same rank or age have on one another. Again, peer pressure is defined as an emotional or mental force exerted by persons in the same social group (such as the same age, grade, or position) to act or behave similarly to themselves (www.nation/tcc.org/tcc/). Peer pressure has a significant impact on teenage behavior because it represents young people’s desire to fit in and be accepted by others. Peer pressure may be defined as an emotional sensation from individuals of the same age, grade, or position to do things in a similar manner to themselves (www.rho.org/htm/glossary.html).
Peer pressure is a set of group dynamics in which a group with whom one feels comfortable may override personal habits, individual moral inhibitions, or idiosyncratic preferences in order to impose a group norm of attitudes and/or behaviors (en.wikipedia.org/wiki/peer pressure). One may argue that peer pressure is the emotional force that persons in the same social group experience as a result of the imposition of the group’s standard of attitude or behavior.
Peer pressure may be a constructive impact, challenging or motivating one to perform his or her best. When an in-school teenager who performs poorly in academic activities joins peers who conduct group study and read very well and comes out with a strong academic performance, such peer may have a favorable influence on his members, which is excellent peer pressure. Peer pressure can sometimes lead to behavior that contradicts one’s sense of what is good and wrong. In other words, negative peer pressure occurs when peer pressure causes someone to do actions that others find objectionable. Peer pressure may impact one in a variety of ways, such as joining a group that consumes alcohol and other drugs. It may also lead to the decision to have a boyfriend/girlfriend, to join a group whose members are obsessed with what they wear, and to loiter. Peer pressure has been observed among Delta State students. In – school youths might be observed by passersby roaming around the streets, watching movies, and attending parties during school hours, as is customary. It has also been noticed that among in-school classmates, kids are mocked for either replying or asking questions. When this occurs, the teenager develops depression, which might have an impact on his or her academic performance. Peer pressure can exist in the workplace, at school, or in society. It may affect persons of all ages as well as the entire community. It can affect people in a variety of ways, but in this case, we are concerned with peer pressure as it affects the academic performance of in-school teenagers. Adolescents engage in loitering and truancy to acquire peer cleavage.
throughout school hours, which is detrimental to academic progress. Furthermore, the desire to engage in other negative behaviors, such as consuming alcohol and smoking cigarettes, can cause pressure in teenagers, which can have an influence on their academic performance. There is ongoing discussion about whether in-school teenagers who are subjected to negative peer pressure perform badly academically, whereas those who are subjected to positive peer pressure perform well academically. This work, on the other hand, will elicit the genuine stance.
According to Lakein (2003), the issue with teenagers is how they manage their time. It is critical to get to know yourself so that you can make sound judgments about what you want to accomplish and how to best spend your time to attain your goals. We all have 168 hours each week to do anything we want with; nevertheless, it appears that some people make greater use of this time than others. This means that individuals who manage their time well do so in order to achieve the given objective, but those who cannot manage their time have a tendency or probability of failing to reach their intended goal (Lakein, 2003). However, this research will offer an answer as to whether or not the capacity to manage time is influenced by peer pressure.
Time management include planning and arranging activities, organizing tasks in a prioritized manner, assigning time to tasks in the order of significance, and assisting one in achieving goals (Achunine, 1995). The capacity to manage and regulate time is referred to as time management (www.organized-living.com/industryterms.htm/). The utilization of planners,
Calendars and the like are useful time management tools. Routine implementation is a way of scheduling tasks that impose regimens to fit with a person’s flow of work and production activities. Time management provides a variety of approaches that may be useful in boosting a person’s efficacy in getting things done. Time management is a bit of a misnomer because time moves regardless of what we do; the only thing we can control is ourselves. As a result, time management is mostly about self-management. It is possible to define time management as an individual’s or a group’s capacity to spend their time effectively in order to achieve specific goals.
The notion of time management is defined as behaviors that are thought to increase productivity and reduce stress (Misra, 2000). Implementing time management tactics aids in the organization of parts of one’s life, providing one’s time to finish all activities required to minimize one’s stress level. A student’s academic performance and accomplishment will improve if he completes his responsibilities on time and in an ordered manner. Time management behaviors include beginning major assignments far ahead of their due dates, breaking large assignments down into smaller ones, and completing little chores on a regular basis. Other helpful strategies include goal formulation and prioritization, the use of lists and mechanics, an orderly workplace, and the perception of time control (Misra, 2000). According to Misra, an in-school teenager who wastes his or her time on unimportant activities rather than concentrating on his or her academics may end up with low academic achievement or utter failure.
The image of students wandering about on television and on the streets suggests that Delta -State students do not manage their time properly. If this is the case, academic performance may suffer as a result.
A child’s academic performance may be described as the child’s learning results. This encompasses the information, abilities, and concepts gained and trained over their term of study both inside and outside of the classroom (Epunam, 1999). According to the West African Examination Council (WAEC) State Committee Meeting (2008) on students’ performance in the West African Senior Secondary Certificate Examination (WASSCE) (2005-2007) in Nigeria, Delta State included, thirty percent (30%) of candidates obtained grades 1-6 (credit and above) in the same number of subjects (23 subjects) in 2005, 2006, and 2007. However, the performance ranges were not the same. In 2005, performance percentages ranged from 31.76 percent to 66.47 percent; in 2006, it ranged from 33 percent to 53 percent; and in 2007, it ranged from 30.91 percent to 63.09 percent. (See Appendix G for details.) This research will determine whether or not the assertion that peer pressure and time management influence performance is correct. This is why research on the linkages between peer pressure, time management, and academic achievement of in-school teenagers in Delta State is necessary.
Statement of the Problem
Academic performance of most secondary pupils in Nigeria, including Delta State, has showed a declining trend (Atesenuwa, 2002). Researchers and writers have both hypothesized on probable explanations for this low performance. The findings tend to point to peer pressure and time management as factors. Because of their age, teenagers are more prone to be influenced by their friends, who may persuade them to engage in habits such as consuming alcohol, cultism, and other undisciplined behavior that is distracting from academic work. This implies that adequate time management may be missing, particularly in Delta-State.
However, some authors and experts believe that teenagers are not simply governed by negative influences. In other words, peer pressure from teenage peers can lead to better time management and, as a result, better academic success. All of these are wild guesses that need to be confirmed. Given that peer pressure is prevalent in that age group, there is a need to explore the link that exists between teenagers’ peer pressure, time management techniques, and academic success. As a result, this study asks, “How does academic achievement of in-school teenagers relate to time management and peer pressure?
Purpose of the Study
Generally, the study sought to investigate the relationships among peer pressure, time management and academic performance of in-school adolescents in Delta State.
Specifically, the study intends to:
(1)Find out the levels of peer pressure and time management among in–school adolescents.
(2) Determine academic performance of in-school adolescents.
(3) Determine incidence of peer pressure and time management practices of male and female in school adolescents.
(4) Ascertain the relationship between peer pressure and time management.
(5) Ascertain the relationship between peer pressure and academic performance.
(6) Ascertain the relationship between time management and academic performance.
(1) What is the levels of peer pressure and time management among in–school adolescents ?
(2) What is academic performance of in-school adolescents ?
(3) what incidence of peer pressure and time management practices of male and female in school adolescents ?
(4) What is the relationship between peer pressure and time management ?
(5) What is the relationship between peer pressure and academic performance ?
(6) What is the relationship between time management and academic performance ?
Significance of the Study
The study will be of immense benefit to the following: – counsellors, the society, school and researchers.
To the counsellors – it is hoped that the result of the study will provide a basis for counsellors to re-orientate in-school adolescents basic time management and peer pressure resistance and therefore formally engrain discipline in school. When this is done, there will be sanity, peace and order,
which will enhance the moral tone of the school as well as the society. In addition, professional counsellors who deal on behaviour modification will find this study useful because it will create awareness in the areas of modifying negative peer pressure.
Classroom teachers will equally benefit from the finding of the study because the findings will help them know what is expected of them in their role as character moulders.
Socially, when in-school adolescents are disciplined following the findings of this study, the society automatically becomes discipline and academic performance are enhanced. The findings of the study will directly lead to the raising of our standard of education because experience has shown that disciplined students learn faster and achieve better academically than undisciplined students. In other words, the findings of this study will help the school produce students who can contribute meaningfully towards the development of the nation in the nearest future.
The findings and suggestions of the study could add to the pool of available data in the field which future researchers could fall on as a basis for further research. Finally, the results of the work will be made known to public by organizing conferences, workshops and seminars to inform them of the results. This will help sensitize in-school adolescents by making them to be aware of the merits of good peer groups and time management, which will help them to devote more time to their studies for excellent academic performance.
In terms of theory the work will likely further an understanding in application of Bandura‘s learning theory in terms of usability to the adolescents in the Nigerian settings.
Scope of the Study
This study is delimited to in-school adolescents in Delta State. The study is an investigation of the relationships among peer pressure, time management and academic performance of in-school adolescents. In-school adolescents involved in this study are both males and females in the senior secondary two (SS2 students).
Academic performance is delimited to the students‘ average score of core subjects in the second (2nd) term examination (See Appendix F).