BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Technological advancements, globalization of competition, the increasing importance of information, increasingly competitive environments, and changes in consumer demographic characteristics (e.g., an increase in the number of employed women, changes in family structure) have all contributed to significant changes in marketing and advertising. Classic advertising becomes less and less effective as a result of these developments, and this is exacerbated by excessive advertising and advertisers’ extravagant claims. This is one of the factors that contribute to the deficit (i.e., the decreasing reliability and quality of certain media). As a result, advertisers will use any and all measures at their disposal to fulfill previously stated objectives in order to maximize their impact.
Covert advertising, according to scholars (Okorie & Akhidenor 2011), is a primary brand communication method used to promote a business’s image and value. Covert advertising is said to be a brand communication tool that may be utilized to promote and build a brand. Covert advertising, according to Muthukumar (2013), has long been employed as a vehicle and has its own impact on customers. It has become an important part of Integrated Marketing Communications. It is less expensive as a vehicle in the advertising medium and has the potential to have a greater influence on the target market.
Covert advertising is a type of advertising in which a product or brand is advertised as an insert in a film that is usually promoted or patronized by a celebrity who appears in the film. In a similar vein, Vasanthi (2013) believes that “covert advertising is viewed as a hybrid kind of advertising.” A product or brand that is integrated in entertainment and media is known as covert advertising. To put it another way, branding various items by including them in films or television shows where the audience may be unaware that they are being advertised to.” “Advertisers utilize numerous tactics to mask such objectives smartly,” Alrasheedi (2014) believes. Advertisers employ covert communication to persuade their target audiences to purchase their products.” This way of thinking led Aka et al. (2015) to claim that “advertising influences the behavioural pattern of customers and ensures the effectiveness of advertisement.”
The daily activities of human beings generate waste. In the opinion of Singh, Saxena, Bharti and Singh (2018), waste was not a main issue when the populace of humans was relatively small and drifting, but became serious as a result of urbanization and increase of large conurbations. According to Singh, et al., (2018), along the years, people have migrated from urban to rural areas causing an increase in the amount of waste produced by a particular location and this has had an extremely negative effect on public health and sanitation in the environment.
Waste is an unavoidable part of human existence and doesn’t pose any threat except when not properly managed. Waste management in Lagos State, Nigeria is very crucial not just because of a healthy environment but also because it falls under SDG goal 11 and 3 (Sustainable cities and communities, good health and wellbeing) and proper waste management would aid in the accomplishment of this goal. According to Brunner, the primary goals of waste management are to protect human wellbeing, the environment and preserve resources.
Allesch and Brunner (2012) along with Singh et al., believe that over time, there has been an increased migration rate of people from undeveloped and semi-developed areas to metropolitan areas. The increase in the size of the populace in developed cities is extremely high in contrast to those of under developed cities. The unrestrained enlargement in developed areas has left many cities lacking in infrastructural services like water supply, sewage and community solid waste management. In many metropolitan areas, almost half of the solid waste created remains unattended, resulting in rise to unhygienic surroundings especially in compactly populated areas which has a snowball effect on increasing in gruesomeness especially due to parasitic and microbial infections in all segments of the populace, while the developed city dwellers and the waste handlers are being the less affected.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Proper management of this waste is of essence as it pertains to SDG 11 and 3 (Sustainable cities and communities, good health and wellbeing). Waste is a product of human consumption of goods and services. The importance of proper waste management cannot be overemphasized, but as crucial as it is, it is one of the most neglected areas of concentration by the communities in Lagos State. Improper waste management in Lagos has led to the contamination of water, soil and also the air. It is as a result of the pollution caused by improper waste management that the wellbeing of the residents of this state are at risk. For a very long time, improper waste management has been a cause of spread of diseases in not only rural areas but also in urban areas and this has also led to underdevelopment because the necessary manpower needed for development is being depleted by the spread of these diseases or by the dangerous environment.
This study seeks to examine the influence of covert advertising in inculcating behavioural change in individuals towards proper waste management in Lagos state.
OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The primary aim of this study is to examine covert advertising as a means to create behavioural change towards waste management. Thus, the following objectives;
1. To investigate whether covert advertising can cause behavioural change in people.
2. To determine the effects of covert advertising on individuals.
3. To investigate whether covert advertising can inculcate behavioural change in Lagos residents towards waste management.
The following questions guide this study;
1. Can covert advertising cause behavioural change in people?
2. What are the effects of covert advertising on individuals?
3. Can covert advertising inculcate behavioural change in Lagos residents towards waste management?
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The findings of this study will help promote proper waste management in Lagos state. It will aid in creating a healthy environment for Lagos citizens. This study will increase awareness on proper waste management and how it would play a vital role in achieving goal eleven of the SDG goals 11 and 3 (Sustainable cities and communities and good health and wellbeing). This study would also help other researchers in unraveling the imbued power of covert advertising in passing across information and causing or persuading individuals to act in a particular way or do a particular thing. This study would also provide an opportunity for government and other organizations communicate their agenda through an effective means of communication. This study would also be relevant to further understanding of how the behavioural patterns of individuals can or cannot be altered as a result of external effects.
SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This research intends to cover covert advertising and its imbued prowess in causing behavioural change in people. This study would be limited to Lagos state, Ikeja because of its large population.
LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The only limitation faced by the researcher during the course of this study was insufficient time to delve in deeper and expatiate on the concept of covert advertising.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
i. BEHAVIOURAL CHANGE: In this research, behavioural change refers to a modification in the actions of individuals towards waste management.
ii. MANAGEMENT: The process of dealing with or controlling things in a strategic manner. In this study, it involves the control and proper disposal of waste produce in Lagos State.
iii. COVERT ADVERTISING: Is the inclusion of a product, brand name or the name of the firm, in this case an issue, in a movie for increasing memorability of the brand or issue in order to evoke a response from the audience.
iv. WASTE: A material or substance regarded is being no longer useful after the completion of a process.
WASTE MANAGEMENT: The actions and dealings necessary to handle waste from its origin to its final dumping. In this study, it involves managing waste and ensuring its proper disposal from production to consumption.