Background of the study
Peptic ulcer disease (PUD) is caused by an imbalance between acid secretion and acid-resistant mucosal defenses. Furthermore, investigations have shown a substantial link between H. pylori stomach antral infection and peptic ulcer disease. H. pylori infects more than 90% of patients with peptic ulcer disease, and eradicating the infection not only cures most uncomplicated ulcers but also dramatically reduces the risk of recurrent ulceration [Leontiadis,2007]. H. pylori infection affects about half of the world’s population, with rates as high as 80 percent to 90 percent in underdeveloped countries and 35 percent to 40 percent in the United States [Rosenstock, 2003]. H. pylori is thought to infect half of the world’s population, making it one of the most frequent bacterial infections in humans [Lee, 2017]. Approximately 20% of people infected with H. pylori develop gastroduodenal diseases during the course of their lives. Several studies in Iraq have been undertaken to determine the prevalence of H. pylori infection in peptic ulcer disease, with estimates ranging from 60% to 70% [Bhatia,2005]. The frequency of H. pylori infection among children in Egypt was 10% [Brzozowski,2008]. Between 1991 and 2000, there were 9323 deaths in Sweden owing to stomach cancer [Snowden, 2008]. In impoverished nations, the yearly incidence of H. pylori infection is roughly 4% to 15%, compared to around 0.5 percent in industrialized countries [GBD, 2013]. Low socioeconomic position, overcrowding, and inadequate sanitation or hygiene were all documented risk factors, which are often linked with underdeveloped countries. The infection was substantially related with socioeconomic situations in infancy, ethnicity, and the existence of dyspeptic disease. In basic studies, rising age, non–white skin tone, large family size, poor socioeconomic circumstances in childhood, larger number of siblings, kid visiting day-care facilities, and presence of dyspeptic symptoms are all linked to public perception of peptic ulcer disease risk factors. In Malaysia, the frequency of H. pylori infection among peptic ulcer disease patients was low, although ethnicity and smoking were important risk factors for infection. Lower socioeconomic groups with poor living standards, congested living situations, low levels of education, and poor hygiene are more likely to get the virus [Campbell,2015].
Statement of the problem
The mechanism by which H. pylori causes distinct kinds of lesions in the gastroduodenal mucosa is not completely understood. The kind of peptic ulcer is determined by whether H. pylori infection causes hypochlorhydria or hyperchlorhydria. H. pylori infection is mostly mediated by cytokines that limit parietal cell secretion, but it may also directly alter the H+/K+ ATPase-subunit, activate calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) sensory neurons connected to somatostatin, and reduce gastrin formation [Malfertheiner,2005]. Despite the fact that hyposecretion is linked to the development of gastric ulcers, 10–15 percent of individuals with H. pylori infection had enhanced gastric secretion due to hypergastrinemia and lower antral somatostatin levels [Bakka,2002]. Despite the use of H. pylori eradication treatment, proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs), and enhanced endoscopic therapeutic options available in recent decades, the death rate linked with PUD has not reduced in lockstep with the incidence rate. As a result, we want to enforce PUD prevention by identifying risk factors. The public view of the risk factors linked with peptic ulcer disease among women in Rivers State is investigated in this research.
Objective of the study
The primary objective of the study is as follows
1. To investigate public perception on the causes of peptic ulcer disease.
2. To examine public perception on the effect of peptic ulcer disease among women in Rivers state.
3. To find out public perception on the challenges peptic ulcer disease patient go through in finding solution to the disease.
4. To find out public perception on the probable solution to peptic ulcer disease among Rivers women.
The following questions have been prepared for this study
1) What is the public perception on the causes of peptic ulcer disease?
2) What is the public perception on the effect of peptic ulcer disease among women in Rivers state?
3) What is the public perception on the challenges peptic ulcer disease patient go through in finding solution to the disease?
4) What is the public perception on the probable solution to peptic ulcer disease among Rivers women?
Significance of the study
This study examines public perception on the risk factors associated with peptic ulcer disease, hence it will be of benefit to health workers as it will help them know the right approach to go about treating peptic ulcer patient.
The study will be of benefit to the academic community as it will contribute to the existing literature.
Scope of the study
This study will investigate public perception on the causes of peptic ulcer disease. The study will also, examine public perception on the effect of peptic ulcer disease among women in Rivers state. More so the study will find out public perception on the challenges peptic ulcer disease patient go through in finding solution to the disease. Lastly, the study will find out public perception on the probable solution to peptic ulcer disease among Rivers women. Hence this study will be delimited to Rivers state.
Limitation of the study
This study was constrained by a number of factors which are as follows:
just like any other research, ranging from unavailability of needed accurate materials on the topic under study, inability to get data
Financial constraint , was faced by the researcher ,in getting relevant materials and in printing and collation of questionnaires
Time factor: time factor pose another constraint since having to shuttle between writing of the research and also engaging in other academic work making it uneasy for the researcher
Definition of terms
Peptic ulcer disease: a sore on the lining of your stomach, small intestine or esophagus