BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
At whatever level of education, the basic goal of teaching is to affect a fundamental change in the student (Tebabal & Kahssay, 2011). Teachers should use appropriate teaching approaches that best suit specific objectives and level exit outcomes to facilitate the process of information transmission. In contrast to student-centered approaches, many teaching practitioners in the conventional period frequently used teacher-centered methods to convey information to learners. Questions concerning the efficacy of teaching methods on student learning have sparked a lot of interest in the field of educational research up to now (Hightower et al., 2011). Furthermore, teaching and learning research is continually examining the amount to which various teaching strategies increase student learning progress. Surprisingly, the majority of students’ low academic performance is directly connected to teachers’ use of inadequate teaching methods to impart knowledge to pupils (Adunola, 2011). The quality of teaching is typically mirrored in the successes of learners, according to extensive research on the efficacy of teaching approaches. Teaching, according to Ayeni (2011), is a process that entails inducing desired changes in learners in order to attain particular results. Adunola (2011) claims that in order for a teaching approach to be effective, teachers must be familiar with a variety of teaching tactics that recognize the amount of complexity of the subjects to be addressed. The link between teaching techniques and students’ academic performance has always attracted the researcher as an educator, especially when it comes to applications in the context of 21st century education. There appears to be something about teaching that opens the door to learning. While it is true that effective learning is dependent on a variety of elements that are not all connected to the instructor, the methods that a teacher employs continue to have a significant impact on student learning and academic progress. Because the issues that educators encounter in the twenty-first century are so diverse, effective teaching approaches are more important than ever. The thesis put up by Gibbs and Jenkins (1992) is that while the setting of class and society has changed, teaching techniques have not. According to Svinicki (2000), the number of research on teaching techniques undertaken over the years is so large that it would be difficult to go over them all in detail. The objective of education has been to find better teaching techniques to deliver the best learning for many decades. However, there is no such thing as a one-size-fits-all teaching style. When it comes to modifying teaching approaches in the classroom, flexibility is essential. Because all instructors are different, the tactics they employ and how they apply them will be determined by the setting and scenario of their class, as well as their own personality and prejudices (McCornac & Phan Thuy, 2005). Every teacher and student should be concerned about the impact of instructional approaches on student learning. Various studies have been conducted in the subject of education in order to assess teaching approaches. Robinson and colleagues (1990) did a case study on different teaching approaches in schools to better understand why they are used and how successful they are. Their findings revealed that different teaching styles had an impact on the efficacy of instruction. Each student learns best utilizing tactics and objectives that match his or her experiences, talents, aptitudes, and interests, according to Keene (2008). Similarly, there is no one-size-fits-all approach to teaching. Although academics frequently identify many teaching techniques, the different teaching approaches overlap in definition and implementation; none are mutually incompatible. The demonstration approach is one of several instructional learning styles that fall within the investigative or activity-based categories. It is a way that, because to its diversity effect action, can improve learning. It possesses the necessary traits for personalised training, and hence has a great potential for challenging and rewarding the teaching-learning process. There is a significant shift from the traditional direct teaching style, in which the teacher actively involves students in the learning process. Students are invited to raise their hands and offer questions. In a nutshell, the student is seen as a questioner, a seeker of knowledge, and a problem-solver. These qualities are essential for problem-solving and are at the heart of the demonstrative teaching method. As a result, there is rising concern over the use of demonstrative techniques in Nigerian secondary schools while teaching government. Much study attention has recently been placed on government teaching in Nigerian secondary schools, with the goal of determining the quality and suitability of the instructors’ teaching methods, as well as the efficacy of instruction. Investigation into the use of demonstration instructional technique in the teaching of government in Nigerian secondary schools appears to have focused primarily on teachers’ frequency of use of this technique, with little attention paid to the application of important variables influencing its effectiveness. In a sense, no study has yet been done on the usefulness of employing demonstrative techniques to teach government. Demonstration instructional approach as an innovative instructional practice can only be applied effectively if instructors have the necessary knowledge, skills, and capacities to use it in the classroom. Competence is defined as the ability to regulate, actively struggle with, and master life challenges by the use of cognitive, social, and scientific abilities. As a learned feature, the quantity of it that individuals possess may be assessed and developed by appropriate and consistent participation in activities. Teachers’ knowledge and comprehension of the difficulties surrounding demonstration teaching are required skills for the government demonstration approach. These skills include questioning skills and recognizing occurrences that lend themselves to demonstration. Others include how to encourage pupils’ curiosity and independent reasoning (Brown, 1999). They also contain the capacity to elicit inquiries from pupils (Kona, 2000). The discussion technique has been extensively approved and suggested as an effective teaching approach in secondary schools by several educators (Phipps & Osborne, 1988). The discussion method is a teaching approach in which interaction is the key and most important feature (Binkley and Tulloch, 1981). Students participate in the learning process during discussion sessions by submitting issues, understanding the elements involved with the problems, generating possible solutions to the problems, putting the solution(s) into action, and assessing the solution’s results. Nowak, Watt, and Walther (2004) expressed this perspective and provided evidence that the demonstrative technique is typically successful in teaching sciences, mathematics, and mechanics, as well as other vocational and technical education subjects. According to Gokhale (1996), a technologist’s professional performance is strongly tied to his or her ability to apply information learned in the classroom to real-world circumstances. Much of what students learn comes from watching others. The relationship between “knowing about” and “being able to do” is established through a demonstration. Demonstrations are most effective when they are accurate, learners can see and comprehend what is going on, and brief explanations occur throughout the presentation, according to research (Saskatchewan, 1988). Because effective teaching, among other variables, has a substantial impact on student achievement, this study sought to determine which technique of instruction best facilitates learning in secondary schools by shedding light on the many teaching methods used in secondary schools.
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
The poor academic performance by majority of the students in various subject areas is basically linked to the application of ineffective teaching methods by teachers to impact knowledge to learners and therefore teachers need to be conversant with numerous teaching strategies (Adunola, 2011). Transferring knowledge requires teachers to use the appropriately method and pedagogy that best suits the learner and suit the objectives and desired outcomes. Most of the traditional methods were teacher- centered with no activity for the learners making them passive and therefore obtaining knowledge from the teacher without building their engagement level with the subject matter, the approach is least practical, more theoretical and memorizing (Tebabal & Kahssay ,2011). Student-centered approaches which are more effective aremore encouraged because they embrace the concept of discovery learning (Brindley, 2015). Most teachers today apply the student-centered approach to promote interest, analytical research, critical thinking and enjoyment among students (Hesson & Shad, 2007). Thus, The teacher does not only teach the most relevant, meaningful and useful materials for specific students, he must also recognize and adopt a good and well-researched method of teaching that guarantees better understanding and also stimulates and motivate the students.
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
i. To assess the type of teaching method required to bring high academic performance of students.
ii. To examine the relationship between the use of demonstration method and academic performance of students
iii. To ascertain the relationship between the use of lecture method and academic performance of students
iv. To determine the relationship between the use of discussion method and the academic performance of students.
HYPOTHESIS OF STUDY
The following null hypotheses are formulated to be tested at 0.05level of significance:
HO1: There is no significant relationship between demonstration method and student academic performance
HO2: There is no significant relationship between lecture method and student academic performance
HO3: There is no significant relationship between discussion method and student academic performance
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study may be considered significant in a number of ways: it will help to increase the teachers’ level of awareness and understanding of the use of most of the instructional technique. Findings may also provide the teachers with a feedback on the teaching competences in most commonly used teaching methods as a basis for improvement in their instructional practice so that they can enhance performance. Curriculum planners and educators as well as government and educational administrators need empirical data on the overall teaching method and activity teaching competence of government teachers in Senior Secondary Schools to facilitate proper curricular policies and programmes for effective teaching and learning.
SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS
The focus of this research is on the effect of activity techniques) of teaching on Senior Secondary School Students performance in government. The educational level of focus is SS 1 students. It is believed that these groups of students have been exposed to the knowledge, attitude and skills of the subject. The work covers performance using all the commonly used method of teaching. The study is however delimited to senior secondary schools in Ngor Okpala Local Government Area in Imo State.
LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
Like in every human endeavour, the researchers encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. The significant constraint was the scanty literature on the subject owing that it is a new discourse thus the researcher incurred more financial expenses and much time was required in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size covering only selected secondary school in Nsukka Local government area in Enugu State. Thus findings of this study cannot be used for generalization for other ministry in other States within Nigeria. Additionally, the researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work will impede maximum devotion to the research. Howbeit, despite the constraint encountered during the research, all factors were downplayed in other to give the best and make the research successful.
OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
In this study, it is imperative to define the terms that will be appearing during the course of this work as they are used within the context of the study for clarification purposes.
Activity: This is student-centered teaching-learning approach, where the student has some control over the process and directs more or less the instructional activities with the teacher providing adequate guidance.
Teaching method: It is a teaching device or strategy adopted by a teacher to teach a lesson, this includes the use of games, text books etc. that stimulates learning.
Academic performance: Learning outcome or output in students taught government which results from teaching techniques/methods the teacher adopts.
Effect: Outcome of result of using appropriate teaching method on students as measured by government performance test.