Background to the Study
Secondary school serves as a bridge between elementary and tertiary education Because secondary education is so important, the Federal Government identified the broad aims of secondary education as preparation for a meaningful existence in society and for higher study. The underlying concept here is that secondary schools should be capable of providing high-quality secondary education to all qualified pupils. According to Omoregie (2005), today’s secondary school graduates are unable to operate in society or pursue higher education without the help or forgery of their parents. They are incapable of thinking for themselves or of respecting other people’s ideas and feelings. They have little concern for the dignity of labor, except in positions that pay well.
It must be stressed that secondary education cannot be the best weapon for achieving national development if it is not appropriately managed to meet its aims and objectives. The principal is essential in secondary school administration. He is in authority, the one who receives both praise and criticism (in terms of accomplishment) (in terms of failure). Inspectors and supervisors contribute to the improvement of classroom instruction by making teachers more competent and efficient, parents satisfied with their children’s performance, children motivated to work harder in order to achieve the required standard, and thus the long-term goal of education is achieved.
School administrators must have a greater and more important role in educational monitoring as the Nigerian educational system evolves. Educational surveillance, according to Mohd Salleh Lebar (2000), is not a new phenomena in Nigeria, but has been in use since the British colonial days. Back then, schools were monitored by Visiting Teachers and the School Inspectorate. Interactions between the inspectorate and the teachers have already happened. The relationship was democratic and welcoming.
In Nigeria’s educational administration framework, the notion of supervision varies. Monitoring was conducted out by teaching colleges and university instructors in order to evaluate the practical instruction of their trainee teachers. In addition, the school inspectorate was in charge of evaluating instructional activities, organizational functions, resource allocation, and overall school management (Yunus, 2012). As a consequence, the inspectorate advised and recommended improvements to the principal. Supervision was frequently handled at the school level by the principal, the headmaster, or a senior teacher with authority. During monitoring, the principal may observe a variety of defects or challenges in the school system. Supervisors are responsible for advising, enhancing teaching effectiveness, serving as facilitators, and promoting teacher morale.
The principal’s supervising role is an important subject in educational leadership. It addressed numerous aspects of leadership, including identifying, supervising, and teaching talents, as well as student performance, the efficacy of school types, and technical abilities. As a result, it is the role of a school administrator or principle to monitor, organize, and implement competitive tactics for the school. As a result, distinguishing between administrative responsibility and managerial activity is difficult.
The National Policy on Education (2004) of the Ministry of Education outlined how the primary function of educational leadership must be effective. Principals must be efficient and spend the majority of their time at their schools preparing instructional activities. One of their primary responsibilities is to maintain effective school supervision by serving as consultants, advisors, and coordinators for school-based teaching and learning activities. Instead than sitting in their desks delivering memos, directions, and circulars, they should commit more time to professional activities of teachers and students. According to Yunus (2012), educational monitoring is a dynamic process in education that aims to improve the quality of teaching and learning. One of the responsibilities of principals is to give the best instructional leadership possible.
According to a circular letter issued by the Ministry of Education in 2004, principals must supervise teachers in their respective schools. In addition to principals, the role may be delegated to senior assistants, afternoon supervisors, and department leaders. According to Yunus (2004), school administrators’ responsibilities as educational supervisors involve three important aspects: curriculum implementation, the development of teaching materials, and the enhancement of teachers’ professionalism in their respective schools. To improve educational quality, school principals must pay close attention to teachers’ instructional activities.
Importantly, principal Supervisory responsibilities in schools, particularly for teaching and non-teaching personnel, are a major concern since they have a considerable impact on the quality of education offered to students (Grauwe and Carron, 2004). Supervisors are in charge of developing policies and processes, as well as people, training and development, and employee performance. As a result, supervisors must be aware not only of the group’s goals in connection to the organization’s goals, but also of the team’s duties and activities. The school, like any other institution, faces obstacles, according to Peretomode (2005). The method by which the school’s functions are carried out can identify the variety of obstacles that it poses. One of the procedures utilized by school administration to achieve acceptable performance and results is instructional monitoring. It serves as a quality control tool in the educational system. Supervision, according to Nwankwo (2004), can be categorised. These are instructional and personnel management. Instructional supervision is described as a set of measures taken to improve the learner’s teaching and learning experience. Personnel supervision, on the other hand, refers to a set of activities carried out by the supervisor with the primary goal of sensitizing, mobilizing, and monitoring school employees in order to complete their tasks and achieve the stated goals and objectives of the educational system.
Statement of the Problem
There has been a public uproar about the low quality of education and the country’s continuing fall in educational standards, particularly at the secondary school level. Currently, most principals have abandoned their role as educational supervisors in favor of focusing on school management and administration. Yunus (2012) discovered that principals spend less than a third of their time supervising students. Principals reported spending just 20% of their time on classroom visits, curriculum-related tasks, and staff development activities. The Ministry of Education has declared unequivocally that principals are accountable for successful curriculum implementation in their schools as professional leaders. This goal will be impossible to fulfill unless the principals oversee methodically and make it a high priority. Although monitoring can serve to increase the efficacy of classroom teaching and learning activities, it is not without drawbacks. There are several impediments or hurdles. According to Abdul Shukor (2001), a quarrel separated the instructor being monitored and the principals. Most likely as a result of teachers’ attitudes and perceptions that principals are underqualified and come from a different field of study.
Some principals transferred supervisory duties to senior assistants. As a result, various complications arise, and many of the issues surrounding the field of research remain unanswered. According to Ogunu (2001), the number of supervisors/inspectors is insufficient, and a significant number of supervisors/inspectorates are believed to be untrained and unaware of their responsibilities due to a lack of in-service training and seminars. As a result of these deficiencies, the quality of instruction has steadily declined, as evidenced by a lack of a staff welfare scheme, a high labor turnover of teaching staff from the teaching profession to other lucrative professions such as banking, oil, and multinational corporations, low staff morale, job insecurity for staff, a lack of modern supervisory equipment, bureaucracy, nepotism, a lack of disciplinary action for erring staff, and a lack of proactivity. As a result, this work is contemporary, relevant, and vital. In accordance with the aforementioned issues, the study’s goal is to try to discover the link between the efficacy of the principal’s supervision and curriculum implementation, teaching material preparation, and teacher professionalism enhancement. Against this backdrop, the research seeks to investigate a review of school supervision as a quality control mechanism for secondary education.
Objectives of the Study
The main purpose of this study therefore is to examine a review on school supervision as a quality control measure for secondary educational.
Specifically the study sets out to:
i. To determine what extent at which principals perform their supervision role in secondary schools
ii. To ascertain whether instructional supervision will enhance the teaching and learning in secondary schools
iii. To investigate whether principals supervision influences teachers job effectiveness and will influence teachers commitment to work in secondary schools.
iv. To assess principal supervision improves school efficiency in secondary schools.
In the course of this study, the following research questions will be raised:
i. What is the extent at which principals perform their supervision role in secondary schools?
ii. Does instructional supervision is a determinant of improved learning condition in secondary school?
iii. Does principals supervision increases teachers job effectiveness and commitment in secondary school ?
iv. Doe teachers performance through supervision improves school efficiency?
Significance of the Study
This study will be of benefit to various school administrators, ministries of education and other affiliated government agencies.The study will help various school administrators to understand the benefit of effective school supervision as a quality control measure at various levels of education. It will enable school administrators to know the best school supervision techniques to adopt in order to maintain standard academic performance and school effectiveness. It will also enhance school administrators to understand their position on their job towards effective routine supervision of teachers, non-teaching staff, and students’ academic performances.The Ministry of Education will also benefit from this study through proper planning and implementation of supervision policies to various school management. The ministries will help in school supervision as a quality control measures through proper inspection and good interrelationship between school administrators and their teachers.
The government agencies will benefit from this study through provision of school facilities, conducive academic environment and improve standard of education. The need to strengthen efficient supervisory control measures at all levels of education is indispensable. Other beneficiaries include scholars of supervision who will gain more knowledge about areas of interest in supervision and which areas of the study to follow for further investigation.
Scope of Study
The scope of this study borders on a review on school supervision as a quality control measure for secondary educational. The study is however delimited to selected secondary school in Benin Metropolis in Edo State.
Limitation of Study
Like in every human endeavour, the researchers encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. The significant constraint was the scanty literature on the subject owing that it is a new discourse thus the researcher incurred more financial expenses and much time was required in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size covering secondary school in Benin Metropolis in Edo State. Thus findings of this study cannot be used for generalization for other private schools in other states within Nigeria. Additionally, the researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work will impede maximum devotion to the research. Howbeit, despite the constraint encountered during the research, all factors were downplayed in other to give the best and make the research successful.
Definition of Terms
Supervision : This is a way of advising guiding refreshing encouraging improving and overseeing certain groups with the aim of improving their performance. Supervision improves the effectiveness of teachers so that they contribute maximally to organizational pride and prestige.
School Supervision: Is the constant and continuous process of guidance based on frequent visits which focus attention on one or more aspects of the school and its organization.
Teachers Effectiveness : Medley 1982 asserts that it can be defined as behavior and learning of students not in terms of teachers behaviour.An effective teacher must posses the knowledge and skill needed to attain the goals and must be able to use that knowledge and those skills appropriately if the goals are to be achieved.
Learning Facilities; These are the physical facilities which consists of the school buildings, school ground and equipment, classroom environment that are provided in the school which aid the stimulation of teaching learning process. Effective teaching and learning can occur when appropriate school facilities are provided.
Effectiveness: It is producing a result. It stresses the actual production of or power to produce an effect.
Academic Performance: This refers to the rate of success in an examination.
Efficiency : This refers to the rate at which the educational system (school) is able to reduce wastage in terms of drop outs, withdrawals, failure etc.